BILL NUMBER: AB 2479	AMENDED
	BILL TEXT

	AMENDED IN ASSEMBLY  APRIL 28, 2010

INTRODUCED BY   Assembly Member Bass

                        FEBRUARY 19, 2010

   An act to amend Sections 1708.7 and 1708.8 of the Civil Code,
relating to stalking.


	LEGISLATIVE COUNSEL'S DIGEST


   AB 2479, as amended, Bass. Stalking: surveillance.
   Existing law provides that a person is liable for the tort of
stalking when  the defendant   he or she 
engaged in a pattern of conduct intended to follow, alarm, or harass,
resulting in the plaintiff reasonably fearing for his or her safety
or the safety of an immediate family member. Under existing law,
liability will be imposed if the defendant has made a credible
threat, as defined, with the intent to cause the plaintiff reasonable
fear, and has continued in his or her pattern of conduct after the
plaintiff demands that he or she cease.
   This bill would additionally impose liability when the defendant
engaged in a pattern of conduct intended to place the victim under
surveillance, as defined, and  would provide a definition of
"follows" for purposes of these provisions   that
pattern of conduct caused the plaintiff to reasonably suffer
substantial emotional distress  . The bill would specify that a
credible threat, as defined, may be made with a reckless disregard
for the safety of the plaintiff or that of an immediate family member
 , and would provide an exception to the requirement that
the plaintiff demand that the defendant cease his or her pattern of
conduct when communication of that demand would have been impractical
or unsafe. The bill would also revise the definition of "harass" to
include conduct that limits the plaintiff's freedom of movement.
  The bill would specify that these provisions shall not
be construed to impair or limit the development or production of an
audiovisual work, news program, book, other similar work, or to
impair the ability of law enforcement   personnel or
employees of other age   ncies, public or private, who, in
the course and scope of their employment, engage in conduct to obtain
evidence of suspected illegal activity or misconduct. 
   Under existing law, a defendant who commits an assault against a
plaintiff with the intent to capture any type of visual image, sound
recording, or other physical impression of the plaintiff is liable
for up to 3 times the amount of any general and special damages that
are proximately caused by this act, as well as punitive damages and a
civil fine of not less than $5,000 and not more than $50,000.
   This bill would expand these provisions to impose liability when a
defendant falsely imprisons the plaintiff with the intent to capture
any type of visual image, sound recording, or other physical
impression of the plaintiff.
   Vote: majority. Appropriation: no. Fiscal committee: no.
State-mandated local program: no.


THE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA DO ENACT AS FOLLOWS:

  SECTION 1.  Section 1708.7 of the Civil Code is amended to read:
   1708.7.  (a) A person is liable for the tort of stalking when the
plaintiff proves all of the following elements of the tort:
   (1) The defendant engaged in a pattern of conduct the intent of
which was to follow, alarm, place under surveillance, or harass the
plaintiff. In order to establish this element, the plaintiff shall be
required to support his or her allegations with independent
corroborating evidence.
   (2) As a result of that pattern of conduct,  the 
 either   of the following occurred: 
    (A)     The  plaintiff reasonably
feared for his or her safety, or the safety of an immediate family
member. For purposes of this  paragraph  
subparagraph  , "immediate family" means a spouse, parent,
child, any person related by consanguinity or affinity within the
second degree, or any person who regularly resides, or, within the
six months preceding any portion of the pattern of conduct, regularly
resided, in the plaintiff's household. 
   (B) The plaintiff suffered substantial emotional distress, and the
pattern of conduct would cause a reasonable person to suffer
substantial emotional distress. 
   (3) One of the following:
   (A) The defendant, as a part of the pattern of conduct specified
in paragraph (1), made a credible threat with either the intent to
place the plaintiff in reasonable fear for his or her safety, or the
safety of an immediate family member, or with reckless disregard for
the safety of the plaintiff or that of an immediate family member. In
addition, the plaintiff must have, on at least one occasion, clearly
and definitively demanded that the defendant cease and abate his or
her pattern of conduct and the defendant persisted in his or her
pattern of conduct  , unless exigent circumstances made the
communication of a demand impractical or unsafe  .
   (B) The defendant violated a restraining order, including, but not
limited to, any order issued pursuant to Section 527.6 of the Code
of Civil Procedure, prohibiting any act described in subdivision (a).

   (b) For the purposes of this section:
   (1) "Pattern of conduct" means conduct composed of a series of
acts over a period of time, however short, evidencing a continuity of
purpose. Constitutionally protected activity is not included within
the meaning of "pattern of conduct."
   (2) "Credible threat" means a verbal or written threat, including
that communicated by means of an electronic communication device, or
a threat implied by a pattern of conduct,  including, but not
limited to, acts in which a defendant directly, indirectly, or
through third parties, by any action, method, device, or means,
follows, harasses, monitors, surveils, or threatens the plaintiff, or
interferes with or damages the plaintiff's property, or a 
 or a  combination of verbal, written, or electronically
communicated statements and conduct, made with the intent and
apparent ability to carry out the threat so as to cause the person
who is the target of the threat to reasonably fear for his or her
safety or the safety of his or her immediate family.
   (3) "Electronic communication device" includes, but is not limited
to, telephones, cellular telephones, computers, video recorders, fax
machines, or pagers. "Electronic communication" has the same meaning
as the term defined in Subsection 12 of Section 2510 of Title 18 of
the United States Code. 
   (4) "Follows" means to move in relative proximity to a person as
that person moves from place to place, or to remain in relative
proximity to a person who is stationary or whose movements are
confined to a small area. "Follows" does not mean instances where
these acts occur within the residence of the defendant. 

   (5) 
    (4)  "Harass" means a knowing and willful course of
conduct directed at a specific person which serves no legitimate
purpose  ,  and  which either 
seriously alarms, annoys, torments, or terrorizes the person 
, or limits the person's freedom of movement  . The course
of conduct must be such as would cause a reasonable person to suffer
substantial emotional distress, and must actually cause substantial
emotional distress to the person. 
   (6) 
    (5)  "Place under surveillance" means remaining present
outside the plaintiff's school, place of employment, vehicle,
residence, other than the residence of the defendant, or other place
occupied by the plaintiff, with the intent to engage in a pattern of
conduct that places the plaintiff in reasonable fear for his or her
safety or that of an immediate family member.
   (c) A person who commits the tort of stalking upon another is
liable to that person for damages, including, but not limited to,
general damages, special damages, and punitive damages pursuant to
Section 3294.
   (d) In an action pursuant to this section, the court may grant
equitable relief, including, but not limited to, an injunction.
   (e) The rights and remedies provided in this section are
cumulative and in addition to any other rights and remedies provided
by law.
   (f) This section shall not be construed to impair  any
  or limit the development or production of any
audiovisual work, motion picture, television program, news program,
radio program, audio work, play, book, magazine, or similar work, in
any medium now known or devised in the future, or any other 
constitutionally protected activity, including, but not limited to,
speech, protest, and assembly. 
   (g) This section shall not be construed to impair or limit any
otherwise lawful activity of law enforcement personnel or employees
of governmental agencies or other entities, either public or private,
who, in the course and scope of their employment, engage or attempt
to engage in any conduct or activity to obtain evidence of suspected
illegal activity or other misconduct, suspected violation of any
administrative rule or regulation, suspected fraudulent conduct, or
any suspected activity involving a violation of law or business
practice or conduct of a public official that adversely affects
public welfare, health, or safety. 
  SEC. 2.  Section 1708.8 of the Civil Code is amended to read:
   1708.8.  (a) A person is liable for physical invasion of privacy
when the defendant knowingly enters onto the land of another person
without permission or otherwise committed a trespass in order to
physically invade the privacy of the plaintiff with the intent to
capture any type of visual image, sound recording, or other physical
impression of the plaintiff engaging in a personal or familial
activity and the physical invasion occurs in a manner that is
offensive to a reasonable person.
   (b) A person is liable for constructive invasion of privacy when
the defendant attempts to capture, in a manner that is offensive to a
reasonable person, any type of visual image, sound recording, or
other physical impression of the plaintiff engaging in a personal or
familial activity under circumstances in which the plaintiff had a
reasonable expectation of privacy, through the use of a visual or
auditory enhancing device, regardless of whether there is a physical
trespass, if this image, sound recording, or other physical
impression could not have been achieved without a trespass unless the
visual or auditory enhancing device was used.
   (c) An assault or false imprisonment committed with the intent to
capture any type of visual image, sound recording, or other physical
impression of the plaintiff is subject to subdivisions (d), (e), and
(h).
   (d) A person who commits any act described in subdivision (a),
(b), or (c) is liable for up to three times the amount of any general
and special damages that are proximately caused by the violation of
this section. This person may also be liable for punitive damages,
subject to proof according to Section 3294. If the plaintiff proves
that the invasion of privacy was committed for a commercial purpose,
the defendant shall also be subject to disgorgement to the plaintiff
of any proceeds or other consideration obtained as a result of the
violation of this section. A person who comes within the description
of this subdivision is also subject to a civil fine of not less than
five thousand dollars ($5,000) and not more than fifty thousand
dollars ($50,000).
   (e) A person who directs, solicits, actually induces, or actually
causes another person, regardless of whether there is an
employer-employee relationship, to violate any provision of
subdivision (a), (b), or (c) is liable for any general, special, and
consequential damages resulting from each said violation. In
addition, the person that directs, solicits, actually induces, or
actually causes another person, regardless of whether there is an
employer-employee relationship, to violate this section shall be
liable for punitive damages to the extent that an employer would be
subject to punitive damages pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section
3294. A person who comes within the description of this subdivision
is also subject to a civil fine of not less than five thousand
dollars ($5,000) and not more than fifty thousand dollars ($50,000).
   (f) (1) The transmission, publication, broadcast, sale, offer for
sale, or other use of any visual image, sound recording, or other
physical impression that was taken or captured in violation of
subdivision (a), (b), or (c) shall not constitute a violation of this
section unless the person, in the first transaction following the
taking or capture of the visual image, sound recording, or other
physical impression, publicly transmitted, published, broadcast, sold
or offered for sale, the visual image, sound recording, or other
physical impression with actual knowledge that it was taken or
captured in violation of subdivision (a), (b), or (c), and provide
compensation, consideration, or remuneration, monetary or otherwise,
for the rights to the unlawfully obtained visual image, sound
recording, or other physical impression.
   (2) For the purposes of paragraph (1), "actual knowledge" means
actual awareness, understanding, and recognition, obtained prior to
the time at which the person purchased or acquired the visual image,
sound recording, or other physical impression, that the visual image,
sound recording, or other physical impression was taken or captured
in violation of subdivision (a), (b), or (c). The plaintiff shall
establish actual knowledge by clear and convincing evidence.
   (3) Any person that publicly transmits, publishes, broadcasts,
sells or offers for sale, in any form, medium, format or work, a
visual image, sound recording, or other physical impression that was
previously publicly transmitted, published, broadcast, sold or
offered for sale, by another person, is exempt from liability under
this section.
   (4) If a person's first public transmission, publication,
broadcast, or sale or offer for sale, of a visual image, sound
recording, or other physical impression that was taken or captured in
violation of subdivision (a), (b), or (c), does not constitute a
violation of this section, that person's subsequent public
transmission, publication, broadcast, sale or offer for sale, in any
form, medium, format or work, of the visual image, sound recording,
or other physical impression, does not constitute a violation of this
section.
   (5) This section applies only to a visual image, sound recording,
or other physical impression that is captured or taken in California
in violation of subdivision (a), (b), or (c) after January 1, 2010,
and shall not apply to any visual image, sound recording, or other
physical impression taken or captured outside of California.
   (6) Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to impair or
limit a special motion to strike pursuant to Section 425.16, 425.17,
or 425.18 of the Code of Civil Procedure.
   (7)  This section shall not be construed to limit all other rights
or remedies of the plaintiff in law or equity, including, but not
limited to, the publication of private facts.
   (g) This section shall not be construed to impair or limit any
otherwise lawful activities of law enforcement personnel or employees
of governmental agencies or other entities, either public or private
who, in the course and scope of their employment, and supported by
an articulable suspicion, attempt to capture any type of visual
image, sound recording, or other physical impression of a person
during an investigation, surveillance, or monitoring of any conduct
to obtain evidence of suspected illegal activity or other misconduct,
the suspected violation of any administrative rule or regulation, a
suspected fraudulent conduct, or any activity involving a violation
of law or business practices or conduct of public officials adversely
affecting the public welfare, health or safety.
   (h) In any action pursuant to this section, the court may grant
equitable relief, including, but not limited to, an injunction and
restraining order against further violations of subdivision (a), (b),
or (c).
   (i) The rights and remedies provided in this section are
cumulative and in addition to any other rights and remedies provided
by law.
   (j) It is not a defense to a violation of this section that no
image, recording, or physical impression was captured or sold.
   (k) For the purposes of this section, "for a commercial purpose"
means any act done with the expectation of a sale, financial gain, or
other consideration. A visual image, sound recording, or other
physical impression shall not be found to have been, or intended to
have been captured for a commercial purpose unless it is intended to
be, or was in fact, sold, published, or transmitted.
   (l) For the purposes of this section, "personal and familial
activity" includes, but is not limited to, intimate details of the
plaintiff's personal life, interactions with the plaintiff's family
or significant others, or other aspects of the plaintiff's private
affairs or concerns. "Personal and familial activity" does not
include illegal or otherwise criminal activity as delineated in
subdivision (g). However, "personal and familial activity" shall
include the activities of victims of crime in circumstances under
which subdivision (a), (b), or (c) would apply.
   (m) (1) A proceeding to recover the civil fines specified in
subdivision (d) or (e) may be brought in any court of competent
jurisdiction by a county counsel or city attorney.
   (2) Fines collected pursuant to this subdivision shall be
allocated, as follows:
   (A) One-half shall be allocated to the prosecuting agency.
   (B) One-half shall be deposited in the Arts and Entertainment
Fund, which is hereby created in the State Treasury.
   (3) Funds in the Arts and Entertainment Fund created pursuant to
paragraph (2) may be expended by the California Arts Council, upon
appropriation by the Legislature, to issue grants pursuant to the
Dixon-Zenovich-Maddy California Arts Act of 1975 (Chapter 9
(commencing with Section 8750) of Division 1 of Title 2 of the
Government Code).
   (4) The rights and remedies provided in this subdivision are
cumulative and in addition to any other rights and remedies provided
by law.
   (n) The provisions of this section are severable. If any provision
of this section or its application is held invalid, that invalidity
shall not affect other provisions or applications that can be given
effect without the invalid provision or application.