BILL NUMBER: SB 518	AMENDED
	BILL TEXT

	AMENDED IN ASSEMBLY  MAY 17, 2010
	AMENDED IN SENATE  JANUARY 21, 2010
	AMENDED IN SENATE  MAY 28, 2009
	AMENDED IN SENATE  MAY 6, 2009
	AMENDED IN SENATE  APRIL 22, 2009
	AMENDED IN SENATE  APRIL 13, 2009

INTRODUCED BY   Senator Lowenthal
    (   Coauthor:   Senator
  Hancock   ) 

                        FEBRUARY 26, 2009

    An act to add Section 2117.5 to the Streets and Highways
Code, and to amend Section 22508 of, and to add Division 19
(commencing with Section 43000) to, the Vehicle Code, relating to
vehicles.   An act to add Section 18941.8 to the Health
and Safety Code, and to amend Section 14877.1 of the Water Code,
relating to building standards. 


	LEGISLATIVE COUNSEL'S DIGEST


   SB 518, as amended, Lowenthal.  Vehicles: parking services
and fees.   Building standards: graywater.  
   The California Building Standards Law provides for the adoption of
building standards by state agencies by requiring all state agencies
that adopt or propose adoption of any building standard to submit
the building standard to the California Building Standards Commission
for approval and adoption.  
   Existing law requires the Department of Housing and Community
Development to propose the adoption, amendment, or repeal of building
standards to the commission relating to hotels, motels, lodging
houses, apartment houses, and dwellings, and the buildings and
structures accessory thereto, except as specified. Existing law
requires the Department of Housing and Community Development, at the
next triennial building standards rulemaking cycle that commences on
or after January 1, 2009, to adopt and submit to the commission for
approval building standards for the construction, installation, and
alteration of graywater, as defined, systems for indoor and outdoor
uses.  
   Existing law requires the Department of Water Resources to adopt
standards for the installation of graywater systems. Existing law
terminates the authority of the Department of Water Resources to
adopt graywater standards for residential buildings upon the approval
by the commission of the standards submitted by the Department of
Housing and Community Development.  
   This bill would require the commission, as a part of the next
triennial edition of the California Building Standards Code adopted
after January 1, 2011, to adopt building standards for the
construction, installation, and alteration of graywater systems for
indoor and outdoor uses in nonresidential occupancies, in accordance
with prescribed requirements. The bill would terminate the authority
of the Department of Water Resources to adopt standards for graywater
systems in nonresidential occupancies upon adoption of the standards
by the commission.  
   (1) Under existing law, the State Building Construction Act of
1955, state funds may be used to fund the construction or operations
of parking facilities in California. Under existing law, a city,
county, or city and county is authorized to provide for the parking
of motor vehicles, including the construction and operation of
parking facilities, and the acquisition of land, property, and
rights-of-way necessary or convenient for use as public parking
places.  
   This bill would require, on and after January 1, 2011, with
respect to any lease of real property that a state entity enters
into, that the lease list the full cost of any parking spaces as a
separate line item, and, for this purpose, the bill would define the
construction and operating costs of parking, the current cost of a
monthly transit pass, the full cost of a parking space, and transit
intensive areas. Because a violation of these provisions would be a
crime, this bill would impose a state-mandated local program.
 
   The bill would authorize a city, county, or a city and county to
adopt and implement measures to reduce or eliminate subsidies for
parking from a specified menu associated with that menu to ensure
that a city, county, or a city and county manages its parking so that
the actual cost of a parking space equals its full cost, as
specified.  
   The bill also would authorize a city, county, or a city and county
to request the State Air Resources Board (board) to approve and
award points for other alternate measures to reduce or eliminate
subsidies that fail to charge users for the full cost of a parking
space, as specified. The bill also would require the board to
consider making cities or counties that adopt and implement measures
that exceed a total score of 20 points from the specified menu
eligible to receive carbon reduction credits through the board's
cap-and-trade program, as specified, and if a total score of at least
50 points from the specified menu is achieved, the city, county, or
a city and county, with respect to any application for competitive
loan or grant programs funded by a general obligation bond approved
by the voters on or after January 1, 2010, would receive bonus points
equal to 5% of the total available points.  
    (2) This bill would also authorize the expenditure of any moneys
apportioned to cities or counties from the Highway Users Tax Account
in the Transportation Tax Fund for the adoption or implementation of
transportation demand management measures, including measures adopted
pursuant to these provisions.  
    (3) Existing law prohibits a local authority from establishing
parking meter zones or fixing the rate for those zones except by
ordinance.  
   This bill would permit a local authority to specify by ordinance a
performance target and allow the rate of fees to be set
administratively to achieve the performance target. 

   This bill would authorize a local authority to dedicate any
portion of revenues collected from parking meter zones to benefit
parking benefit districts or to fund programs that reduce parking
demand, including, but not limited to, public transit, transportation
demand management, or bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure
improvements and promotion.  
    (4) The California Constitution requires the state to reimburse
local agencies and school districts for certain costs mandated by the
state. Statutory provisions establish procedures for making that
reimbursement.  
   This bill would provide that no reimbursement is required by this
act for a specified reason. 
   Vote: majority. Appropriation: no. Fiscal committee: yes.
State-mandated local program:  yes   no  .


THE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA DO ENACT AS FOLLOWS:

   SECTION 1.    Section 18941.8 is added to the 
 Health and Safety Code   , to read:  
   18941.8.  (a) As used in this section, "graywater" has the same
meaning as defined in Section 17922.12.
   (b) Notwithstanding Chapter 22 (commencing with Section 14875) of
Division 7 of the Water Code, as a part of the next triennial edition
of the California Building Standards Code (Title 24 of the
California Code of Regulations) adopted after January 1, 2011, the
commission shall adopt building standards for the construction,
installation, and alteration of graywater systems for indoor and
outdoor uses in nonresidential occupancies.
   (c) In adopting building standards under this section, the
commission shall do all of the following:
   (1) Ensure protection of water quality in accordance with
applicable provisions of state and federal water quality law.
   (2) Consider the adopted building standards for the construction,
installation, and alteration of graywater systems for indoor and
outdoor uses in residential buildings.
   (3) Consider existing research available on the environmental
consequences to soil and groundwater of short-term and long-term
graywater use for irrigation purposes, including, but not limited to,
research sponsored by the Water Environment Research Foundation.
   (4) Consider graywater use impacts on human health.
   (5) Consider the circumstances under which the use of graywater
treatment systems in nonresidential occupancies is recommended.
   (6) Consider the use and regulation of graywater in other
jurisdictions within the United States and in other nations.
   (d) The commission may revise and update the standards adopted
under this section at any time.
   (e) The commission's adoption of building standards for graywater
systems pursuant to this section shall terminate the authority of the
Department of Water Resources to adopt and update standards for the
installation, construction, and alteration of graywater systems in
nonresidential buildings pursuant to Chapter 22 (commencing with
Section 14875) of Division 7 of the Water Code. 
   SEC. 2.    Section 14877.1 of the   Water
Code   is amended to read: 
   14877.1.  (a) The department, in consultation with the State
Department of Public Health and the Center for Irrigation Technology
at California State University, Fresno, shall adopt standards for the
installation of graywater systems. In adopting these standards, the
department shall consider, among other resources, "Appendix J," as
adopted on September 29, 1992, by the International Association of
Plumbing and Mechanical Officials, the graywater standard proposed
for the latest edition of the Uniform Plumbing Code of the
International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials, the
City of Los Angeles Graywater Pilot Project Final Report issued in
November 1992, and the advice of the Center for Irrigation Technology
at California State University, Fresno, on the installation depth
for subsurface drip irrigation systems.
   (b) The department shall include among the approved methods of
subsurface irrigation, but  the approved methods  shall not
be limited to, drip systems.
   (c) The department shall revise its graywater systems standards as
needed.
   (d)  (1)    The authority of the department
under this chapter to adopt standards for residential buildings shall
terminate upon the approval by the California Building Standards
Commission of the standards submitted to that commission pursuant to
Section 17922.12 of the Health and Safety Code. 
   (2) The authority of the department under this chapter to adopt
standards for nonresidential occupancies shall terminate upon the
adoption of standards by the California Building Standards Commission
pursuant to Section 18941.8 of the Health and Safety Code. 

  SECTION 1.    The Legislature finds and declares
all of the following:
   (a) The transportation sector contributes over 40 percent of the
greenhouse gas emissions in the State of California; automobiles and
light trucks alone contribute almost 30 percent. The transportation
sector is the state's single largest contributor of greenhouse gases.

   (b) In 2006, the Legislature passed and the Governor signed
Assembly Bill 32 (Chapter 488 of the Statutes of 2006; hereafter AB
32), which requires the State of California to reduce its greenhouse
gas emissions to 1990 levels no later than 2020. According to the
State Air Resources Board, in 1990 greenhouse gas emissions from
automobiles and light trucks were 108 million metric tons, but by
2004 these emissions had increased to 135 million metric tons.
   (c) Greenhouse gas emissions from automobiles and light trucks can
be substantially reduced by new vehicle technology and by the
increased use of low carbon fuel. However, even taking these measures
into account, it will be necessary to achieve significant additional
greenhouse gas reductions by reducing vehicle miles traveled.
Without those reductions, California will not be able to achieve the
goals of AB 32.
   (d) In addition, automobiles and light trucks account for 50
percent of air pollution in California and 70 percent of the state's
consumption of petroleum. Reducing vehicle trips will also help
reduce criteria pollutant emissions that are regulated by the state
and federal clean air acts and reduce the state's dependence on
petroleum.
   (e) California has five of the top 13 most traffic congested
metropolitan areas in the United States. Pricing strategies, such as
parking pricing, are the most effective way to achieve lasting
reductions in traffic congestion by permanently reducing roadway
demand. On a congested street, eliminating just 10 percent of
vehicles can result in free-flowing traffic.
   (f) The existence of "free" parking is a significant factor that
encourages vehicle trips. At employment sites, employer-paid parking
increases rates of driving by as much as 22 percent. Conversely,
employee-paid parking reduces rates of driving by the same amount.
   (g) Excessive governmental parking requirements greatly expand the
built footprint and increase travel distances, thereby increasing
vehicle miles traveled and reducing the viability of alternate
transportation modes that help to achieve the state's greenhouse gas
reduction targets, including walking, bicycling, and public
transportation.
   (h) Parking is costly to build and maintain. Building a structured
parking space in 2008 costs between $17,000 and $30,000, with
underground spaces costing significantly more. Annual operations and
maintenance costs vary from $100 and $500 per space per year. The
high cost of land, construction, and maintenance to provide free
parking adds significantly to the cost of economic development,
making many housing and commercial developments, especially those on
infill or transit-oriented sites, financially infeasible and
hindering economic development strategies. Moreover, when parking is
provided free to the user, these costs are hidden elsewhere in the
cost of doing business. Free parking at stores is paid for by all
customers in higher prices for goods, including those customers who
do not drive. Free parking in housing developments is paid for by all
residents, even those who do not drive. Free employer-provided
parking is paid for by lower wages for all workers, including those
who do not drive. Free onstreet parking is paid for by the entire
community in the form of taxes.
   (i) Eliminating subsidies for parking has enormous potential to
reduce traffic congestion and greenhouse gas and other vehicle
emissions by reducing vehicle miles traveled. If drivers must pay the
true cost of parking, it will affect their choices on whether or not
to drive. In the short term, changes to parking policy can reduce
traffic congestion and greenhouse gas emissions more than all other
strategies combined, and they are usually the most cost-effective
approach. Eliminating parking subsidies can also improve social
equity by lowering prices for those who do not drive, that are often
lower-income households.  
  SEC. 2.    Section 2117.5 is added to the Streets
and Highways Code, to read:
   2117.5.  Any of the moneys apportioned to cities or counties from
the Highway Users Tax Account in the Transportation Tax Fund may be
expended for the adoption or implementation of transportation demand
management measures, including measures adopted pursuant to Section
43002 of the Vehicle Code.  
  SEC. 3.    Section 22508 of the Vehicle Code is
amended to read:
   22508.  (a) A local authority shall not establish parking meter
zones except by ordinance. An ordinance establishing a parking meter
zone shall describe the area that would be included within the zone.
   (b) A local authority shall either fix the rate of fees for
parking meter zones by ordinance or specify by ordinance a
performance target and allow the rate of the fees to be set
administratively to achieve the performance target.
   (c) A local authority may by ordinance cause streets and highways
to be marked with white lines designating parking spaces and require
vehicles to park within the parking spaces.
   (d) An ordinance adopted by a local authority pursuant to this
section with respect to any state highway shall not become effective
until the proposed ordinance has been submitted to and approved in
writing by the Department of Transportation. The proposed ordinance
shall be submitted to the department only by action of the local
legislative body and the proposed ordinance shall be submitted in
complete draft form.
   (e) An ordinance adopted pursuant to this section establishing a
parking meter zone or fixing rates of fees for that zone shall be
subject to local referendum processes in the same manner as if the
ordinance dealt with a matter of purely local concern.
   (f) A local authority may dedicate any portion of revenues
collected from parking meter zones to benefit parking benefit
districts or to fund programs that reduce parking demand, including,
but not limited to, public transit, transportation demand management,
or bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure improvements and promotion.
 
  SEC. 4.    Division 19 (commencing with Section
43000) is added to the Vehicle Code, to read:

      DIVISION 19.  PARKING REQUIREMENTS


   43000.  For the purposes of this division, the following terms
have the following meaning:
   (a) "Current cost of a monthly transit pass" means the most recent
adopted rate of a monthly transit pass for an adult by the local
transit operator serving the jurisdiction in which the residence or
employer is located. If no monthly pass exists, the amount shall be
the sum of a return fare for a 20-day period. In a jurisdiction in
which there are multiple transit operators, the amount shall be the
average of the monthly pass of two or more of the largest operators
serving the jurisdiction, but no more than four operators. This
amount shall be calculated by the regional transportation planning
agency by June 31 of each year and shall be made available to the
public on the agency's Internet Web site. If no transit operator
serves the jurisdiction, the amount shall be forty dollars ($40).
   (b) "Full cost of a parking space" means the sum of all of the
following:
   (1) Annualized land cost. For surface parking or for structured
parking uncovered by occupiable space, the land cost shall be equal
to the full value of the land area of the parking facility. For
entirely underground parking, the land cost shall be zero. For
above-ground parking wholly or partially covered by occupiable space,
assume a fractional land cost based upon the above-ground volume of
the parking facility compared to the volume of the parking facility
and other occupiable building space combined. To annualize the cost,
divide actual or fractional land cost by 10. For leased land, use the
annual lease rate.
   (2) Annualized construction cost. Include full project cost
divided by the useful life of the facility. If actual costs are not
available, use a per-space cost from a current relevant parking
construction cost index, published by the parking, transportation, or
construction industries and assume a 40-year useful life.
   (3) Annualized operations and maintenance costs. Include lighting,
landscape, irrigation, security, insurance, equipment, pavement
maintenance, collections, enforcement, and related costs. If actual
costs are not available, use current applicable estimates published
by the parking, transportation, or construction industries.
   (c) "Transit intensive area" means central business districts,
areas within one-half mile of a major transit stop, as defined in
subdivision (b) of Section 21155 of the Public Resources Code, and
areas within one-quarter mile of a high-quality transit corridor, as
defined in subdivision (b) of Section 21155 of the Public Resources
Code.
   43001.  With respect to any lease of real property that a state
entity enters into on or after January 1, 2011, the lease shall list
the full cost of any parking spaces as a separate line item.
   43002.  A city, county, or city and county may adopt and implement
measures to reduce or eliminate subsidies for parking, including,
but not limited to, measures from the following menu:
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|MEASURE                           |POINTS         |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|PARKING REQUIREMENTS AND ZONING   |               |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Eliminate minimum parking         |               |
|requirements citywide or within   |               |
|the unincorporated county.        |20             |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Reduce average minimum parking    |               |
|requirements for all general      |               |
|office, general retail, general   |               |
|commercial, and similar           |               |
|development citywide or within    |               |
|the unincorporated county to:     |               |
|Less than 3 spaces per 1,000      |               |
|square feet                       |               |
|Less than 2 spaces per 1,000      |               |
|square feet                       |2              |
|Less than 1 space per 1,000       |5              |
|square feet                       |10             |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Reduce minimum parking            |               |
|requirements for residential uses |               |
|to:                               |               |
|1 uncovered space per zero- or    |               |
|one-bedroom unit                  |               |
|1.5 uncovered spaces per two-     |               |
|bedroom unit                      |               |
|2 uncovered spaces per three-     |               |
|bedroom or larger unit            |5              |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Reduce minimum parking            |               |
|requirements for all sizes of     |               |
|residential units below 1         |               |
|uncovered space per unit.         |10             |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Eliminate minimum parking         |               |
|requirements for projects in      |               |
|transit intensive areas.          |10             |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Establish maximum parking         |               |
|restrictions for all general      |               |
|office, general retail, general   |               |
|commercial, and similar           |               |
|development at or below the       |               |
|following:                        |               |
|3 spaces per 1,000 square feet    |10             |
|2 spaces per 1,000 square feet    |15             |
|1 space per 1,000 square feet     |20             |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Establish commercial parking      |               |
|maximums of 2 or fewer spaces per |               |
|1,000 sq. feet citywide or within |               |
|the unincorporated county.        |10             |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Establish       commercial        |               |
|parking maximums of 2 or fewer    |               |
|spaces per 1,000 sq. feet in      |               |
|transit intensive areas.          |5              |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Establish residential parking     |               |
|maximums of 1 or fewer spaces per |               |
|unit in transit intensive areas.  |5              |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Remove restrictions against       |               |
|residential tandem parking,       |               |
|including eliminating             |               |
|requirements that parking must be |               |
|independently accessible to count |               |
|toward minimum residential        |               |
|parking requirement, if any.      |2              |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Remove restrictions against       |               |
|mechanized and mechanical         |               |
|""lift'' parking, including       |               |
|counting mechanized spaces toward |               |
|minimum requirement, if any.      |2              |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Establish a shared parking        |               |
|ordinance and requirements for    |               |
|interconnection of parking        |               |
|in all commercial areas.          |2              |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Remove or increase by 50%         |               |
|allowable density limits and      |               |
|floor area ratios (FAR), allowing |               |
|infill development on existing    |               |
|parking lots.                     |10             |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|PARKING AND TRANSPORTATION DEMAND |               |
|MANAGEMENT                        |               |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|                                  |               |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Adopt an ordinance to require,    |               |
|with respect to the initial sale  |               |
|of a separate interest within a   |               |
|common interest development of    |               |
|five or more units, that access   |               |
|to parking be sold separately at  |               |
|a price that reflects the full    |               |
|cost of the parking space or      |               |
|spaces.                           |5              |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Adopt an ordinance to require     |               |
|that any lease for commercial     |               |
|space in a complex of five or     |               |
|more commercial tenants include a |               |
|separate unbundled charge for the |               |
|parking space or spaces that      |               |
|reflects the full cost of the     |               |
|parking space or spaces but is    |               |
|not less than the number of       |               |
|leased parking spaces multiplied  |               |
|by the current cost of a monthly  |               |
|transit pass within the city or   |               |
|county and grant the lessee the   |               |
|ability to opt out of the parking |               |
|charge by foregoing use of the    |               |
|parking space or spaces.          |5              |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Adopt an ordinance to require     |               |
|that any new employment contract  |               |
|under which the employer provides |               |
|a parking space within the city,  |               |
|county, or city and county        |               |
|include a nonreimbursable charge  |               |
|to the employee that reflects the |               |
|full cost of the parking space    |               |
|but is not less than the cost of  |               |
|a monthly transit pass within the |               |
|city, county, or city and county  |               |
|and that the employee may opt out |               |
|of by foregoing use of the        |               |
|parking       space.              |5              |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Adopt an ordinance to require     |               |
|employers to offer transit passes |               |
|to all employees, including full- |               |
|time, part-time, and seasonal     |               |
|employees, on a pretax basis and  |               |
|certify compliance upon           |               |
|application for a new or renewal  |               |
|business license.                 |2              |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|PARKING MANAGEMENT                |               |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Adopt an ordinance to set on-     |               |
|street parking meter and public   |               |
|parking lot and garage rates to   |               |
|achieve an 85% target occupancy   |               |
|rate during hours when adjacent   |               |
|businesses are open or employ     |               |
|demand-responsive rates that vary |               |
|throughout the day to achieve an  |               |
|85% target occupancy rate.        |10             |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Establish a Parking Benefit       |               |
|District, whereby all or a        |               |
|portion of new public parking     |               |
|revenues are directed             |               |
|toward improvements within the    |               |
|district where the revenue was    |               |
|raised.                           |5              |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Establish a Residential Parking   |               |
|Benefit District, whereby a       |               |
|limited number of parkers may pay |               |
|to park in an otherwise           |               |
|restricted Residential Parking    |               |
|Permit area, with the net revenue |               |
|directed toward improvements      |               |
|within the district where the     |               |
|revenue was raised.               |5              |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Install parking meters in areas   |               |
|with parking occupancy rates of   |               |
|greater than 85% and establish    |               |
|meter rates such that parking     |               |
|availability improves to 85% or   |               |
|better.                           |2              |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|PARKING REVENUE                   |               |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Adopt an ordinance to direct some |               |
|portion of net public parking     |               |
|revenues to programs that reduce  |               |
|parking demand, including, but    |               |
|not       limited to, public      |               |
|transit, transportation demand    |6 multiplied   |
|management, or bicycle and        |by the % of    |
|pedestrian infrastructure         |net revenue    |
|improvements and promotion.       |directed       |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
|Adopt a parking sales tax, a      |               |
|property assessment upon parking  |               |
|owners, or a use fee upon         |               |
|parkers, with some portion of     |               |
|resulting net revenue directed at |               |
|programs that reduce parking      |               |
|demand, including, but not        |               |
|limited to, public transit,       |               |
|transportation demand management, |6 multiplied   |
                                                  |or bicycle and
pedestrian         |by the % of    |
|infrastructure improvements and   |net revenue    |
|promotion.                        |directed       |
+----------------------------------+---------------+


   (b) Upon request by a city, county, or city and county, the State
Air Resources Board may approve and award points for other alternate
measures to reduce or eliminate subsidies that fail to charge users
for the full cost of a parking space, provided that points are
awarded in proportion to their estimated impact on vehicle miles
traveled, consistent with the weighting for measures described in
subdivision (a).
   (c) The State Air Resources Board shall consider making a city,
county, or a city and county that adopts and implements measures that
exceed a total score of 20 points from the menu described in
subdivision (a) eligible to receive carbon reduction credits through
the board's cap-and-trade program for those measures that exceed the
20-point threshold if the granting of those credits does not result
in increasing the overall cap on emissions.
   (d) If a city, county, or a city and county adopts and implements
measures to achieve a total score of at least 50 points from the menu
described in subdivision (a), with respect to any application
submitted by the city or county for competitive state loan or grant
programs related to housing, transportation, or economic development
or funded by a general obligation bond approved by the voters on or
after January 1, 2010, the city, county, or city and county shall
receive bonus points equal to 5 percent of the total available
points.
   (e) Cities and counties are encouraged to address any parking
spillover from new development through the use of residential parking
permits or other parking management strategies and to provide
residents who resided in the parking permit zone prior to adoption of
the parking permit zone a parking permit for free. 

  SEC. 5.    The changes to Section 22508 of the
Vehicle Code enacted by this act are declaratory of existing law.
 
  SEC. 6.    No reimbursement is required by this
act pursuant to Section 6 of Article XIII B of the California
Constitution because the only costs that may be incurred by a local
agency or school district will be incurred because this act creates a
new crime or infraction, eliminates a crime or infraction, or
changes the penalty for a crime or infraction, within the meaning of
Section 17556 of the Government Code, or changes the definition of a
crime within the meaning of Section 6 of Article XIII B of the
California Constitution.