BILL ANALYSIS                                                                                                                                                                                                    

        |Hearing Date:May 2, 2011           |Bill No:SB                         |
        |                                   |147                                |

                               AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
                          Senator Curren D. Price, Jr., Chair

                           Bill No:        SB 147Author:Leno
                    As Amended:March 25, 2011          Fiscal: Yes

        SUBJECT:  Furniture.
        SUMMARY:  Requires the Bureau of Electronic and Appliance Repair, Home 
        Furnishings and Thermal Insulation, on or before March 1, 2013, to 
        modify Technical Bulletin 117 regarding product standards for fire 
        retardant furniture to include a smolder flammability test to provide 
        an alternative method of compliance that can be met without the use of 
        chemical fire retardants and does not compromise fire safety; requires 
        the Bureau, in developing the smolder flammability test, to consider 
        the draft smolder standard proposed by the federal Consumer Product 
        Safety Commission, to take into consideration the cost to 
        manufacturers and consumers, and amend existing label specifications 
        to identify any products meeting that adopted standard.  The bill 
        further authorizes the Bureau Chief to additionally exempt 
        polyurethane foam from the fire retardant requirements, as specified.

         NOTE  :  This measure failed passage in this Committee on April 25, 
        2011, by a vote of 1-8, and 
        was granted reconsideration.  It is before this Committee today for 
        Reconsideration and "Vote-Only."

        Existing law:
        1) Establishes the Home Furnishings and Thermal Insulation Act (Act), 
           administered by the Bureau of Electronic and Appliance Repair, Home 
           Furnishings and Thermal Insulation (Bureau) within the Department 
           of Consumer Affairs (DCA).  The Bureau is under the supervision and 
           control of a Chief appointed by the Governor, and the Chief is 
           under the supervision and control of the Director of DCA.  


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        2) The Act provides for the licensing and inspection of businesses 
           that manufacture and sell upholstered furniture, bedding and 
           thermal insulation, and requires all mattresses and box springs 
           manufactured for sale in this state to be fire retardant, as 
           defined to meet the federal standards for resistance to open-flame 
           test, and authorizes the Bureau to adopt regulations to implement 
           those standards. (Business and Professions Code (BPC)  19161) 

        3) The Act requires other bedding products to comply with regulations 
           adopted by the Bureau specifying that those products be resistant 
           to open-flame ignition, requires all seating furniture to be fire 
           retardant and labeled as specified. (BPC  19161) 

        4) Requires all flexible polyurethane foam, except as specified, that 
           is offered for retail sale to be fire retardant, and defines fire 
           retardant to mean a product that meets the regulations adopted by 
           the Bureau. (BPC  19161.3)

        5) Authorizes the Chief, subject to the approval of the Director of 
           DCA, to exempt items of upholstered furniture which are deemed not 
           to pose a serious fire hazard from the fire retardant requirements. 
           (BPC  19161.5) 

        6) Bureau regulations, establish flame retardant tests for the filling 
           materials of residential upholstered furniture.  Specifically, 
           Bureau regulations require filling materials labeled as ''flame 
           resistant,'' ''flame retardant'' to be tested and meet the 
           requirements of TB 117. (Article 13, Division 3, Title 4, 
           California Code of Regulations, commencing with  1370)

        This bill:

        1) Requires the Bureau, on or before March 1, 2013, to modify 
           Technical Bulletin 117 (TB 117) regarding product standards for 
           fire retardant furniture to include a smolder flammability test to 
           provide an alternative method of compliance that can be met without 
           the use of chemical fire retardants and does not compromise fire 

        2) Requires the Bureau, in developing the smolder flammability test, 
           to do the following:

           a)   Consider the draft smolder standard proposed by the federal 
             Consumer Product Safety Commission (16 C.F.R. Part 1634, as 
             published in the Federal Register on March 4, 2008).


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           b)   Take into consideration the cost to manufacturers and 

           c)   Amend existing label specifications to identify any products 
             meeting that adopted standard.

        3) Authorizes the Bureau Chief to additionally exempt polyurethane 
           foam from the fire retardant requirements, as specified.  

        FISCAL EFFECT:  Unknown.  This bill has been keyed "fiscal" by 
        Legislative Counsel.

        1. Purpose.  This bill is sponsored by the following organizations:

             Consumer Federation California
             Friends of the Earth
             Green Science Policy Institute
             Health Officers Association of California (HOAC)
             Just Transition Alliance
             Physicians for Social Responsibility-Los Angeles (PSR-LA)
             SF Baykeepers
             Trauma Foundation

           The Author states the need for the bill as follows:  "Current 
           flammability regulations contain outdated test protocols that do 
           not test the flammability of the upholstered product which is 
           comprised of fire resistant fabric and construction technology that 
           provide the primary defense against fire.  As currently drafted, TB 
           117 test protocols expose bare foam to an open flame from a Bunsen 
           burner, rather than the more likely scenario of a smolder source 
           (such as a cigarette) on an upholstered product.  As a result, 
           current regulations lead to an unsafe reliance on flame retardants 
           to meet TB 117.  Reliance of fire retardants may increase risk of 
           fire injury and death through the significantly increased 
           production of carbon monoxide, smoke and soot in the event of a 
           fire.  Fire toxicity related to smoke, soot and carbon monoxide is 
           the leading cause of fire injury and death.

           "In addition to diminished fire safety due to increased fire 
           toxicity, flame retardants pose a serious hazard to pregnant women 
           and young children who are the most vulnerable to endocrine 
           disruptors, carcinogens, mutagens, and neurological and 
           reproductive toxins.


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           "Flame retardants escape from products into dust and are ingested 
           by humans and animals. Levels of these chemicals have increased 
           40-fold in human breast milk since the 1970's.

           "Advanced construction technologies and ignition resistant fabrics 
           are significantly more effective at preventing fires.  These 
           technologies, combined with the development and mandate of fire 
           safe cigarettes, have led to a dramatic decline in the number of 
           residential fires.

           "Other, more effective flammability standards exist, including the 
           Federal Consumer Product Safety Commission's draft standard, which 
           do not require the use of fire retardant chemicals."

        2. Background.  Since 1975, the Bureau has developed several 
           flammability standards, called technical bulletins.  These 
           performance-based standards do not prescribe the use of 
           flame-retardant chemicals, manufacturing methods, or specific 
           materials to meet the standards.  Bureau regulations require that 
           all filling materials contained in any article of upholstered 
           furniture, and all filling materials added to reupholstered 
           furniture, shall meet the test requirements as set forth in the 
           State of California, Bureau of Home Furnishings Technical Bulletin 
           Number 117, entitled ''Requirements, Test Procedures and Apparatus 
           for Testing the Flame Retardance of Filling Materials Used in 
           Upholstered Furniture,'' dated March 2000.  
        TB 117 is a flammability standard required for all upholstered seating 
           furniture products.  This standard was originally adopted in 1975 
           in California.

           The Bureau requires manufacturers to make upholstered furniture and 
           bedding products sold in California flame-retardant.  The Bureau 
           encourages the industry to use innovative solutions and products to 
           achieve flame resistance without compromising the environment.  
           Manufacturers must strictly adhere to state and federal laws 
           governing the manufacture and sale of upholstered furniture and 
           bedding products. 

           In the event of a residential fire, these products act as a 
           significant fuel source and are difficult to extinguish once 
           ignited.  The Bureau measures flame retardance in accordance with 
           flammability standards developed by the Bureau or the United 
           States, Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC).

           The Author indicates that TB 117 enacts a unique flammability 


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           standard which, as currently drafted, is designed to test 
           polyurethane foam used inside of upholstered furniture by 
           submitting the foam to a 12 second open flame test.

           Until 2004, manufacturers primarily met this requirement with 
           penta-brominated diphenyl ether (pentaBDE), a brominated flame 
           retardant.  In 1999, North America accounted for 98% of global 
           pentaBDE usage, believed to be largely because of TB117.  
           California banned PentaBDE in 2003, and the manufacturer ceased 
           production in 2004.  Other organohagen flame retardants continue to 
           be used as they are the least expensive way to meet the 
           flammability standard TB117.

           The Author further states that federal law pursuant to the 
           Flammable Fabrics Act 16 C.F.R. Part 1633 requires mattresses and 
           mattress sets to meet specified flammability standards.  However, 
           these provisions explicitly exclude upholstered furniture.  The 
           Author indicates that Federal law, through the Federal Consumer 
           Product Safety Commission, has drafted a smolder based flammability 
           standard 16 C.F.R. Part 1634, as published in the Federal Register 
           on March 4, 2008.

        3. Recent Study of Concentrations of Flame-Retardant Chemicals in 
           Children.  On Friday, April 15, 2011, the journal, Environmental 
           Health Perspectives, published a study by UC Berkley researchers 
           which found that California children have seven times more 
           flame-retardant chemicals in their blood than children born in 
           Mexico.  The study titled, Comparison of PBDE Serum Concentrations 
           in Mexican and Mexican-American Children Living in California, 
           compared serum Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) concentrations 
           in 264 first generation Mexican-American 7-year old children who 
           were born and raised in California, with 283 5-year old Mexican 
           children who were raised in the states in Mexico where most of the 
           mothers of the California-raised children had originated. 

        On average PBDE blood serum concentrations in the California 
           Mexican-American children were three times higher than their 
           mothers' levels during pregnancy and seven times higher than 
           concentrations in the children living in Mexico.  Researchers cited 
           prior research which indicated that the higher levels of 
           concentration were likely due to absorption of household dust 
           through the skin, breast milk and hand-to-mouth contact.  
           Researchers note that PBDE has been linked to a number of 
           reproductive problems, including lower sperm count in men and 
           couples taking a longer time to get pregnant.  The chemical is also 
           linked to altered thyroid levels in adults, infants and felines.


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           The researchers further indicated that the flame retardants in 
           California homes and residences may be an unintended consequence of 
           government regulation, citing TB 117.  

           Ultimately, the report states the following conclusions:  "Latino 
           children living in California have much higher PBDE serum levels 
           than their Mexican counterparts.  Given the growing evidence 
           documenting potential health effects of PBDE exposure, the levels 
           in young children noted in this study, potentially presents a major 
           public health challenge, especially in California.  In addition, as 
           PBDEs are being phased out and replaced by other flame retardants, 
           the health consequences of these chemical replacements should be 
           investigated and weighed against their purported fire safety 
        4. Smolder Flammability Test.  This bill requires the Bureau in 
           revising TB 117 to include a smolder flammability test to provide 
           an alternative method of compliance that can be met without the use 
           of chemical fire retardants and does not compromise fire safety.  
           Such a standard consistent with the draft smolder standard proposed 
           by the federal CPSC, as specified, could require manufacturers of 
           upholstered furniture to choose one of two methods of compliance:  
           (1) use upholstery materials that are sufficiently smolder 
           resistant to meet a cigarette ignition performance test; or (2) 
           place fire barriers that meet smoldering and open flame resistance 
           tests between the cover fabric and interior filling materials.  
        In the past, the Bureau has indicated that it might consider giving 
           the choice of either using fire resistant fillings that are proven 
           to be also safe in regards to health effects or using fire barriers 
           to fully encase foam padding inside their furniture.  The Bureau 
           has indicated that there are a number of highly fire resistant, 
           affordable and environmentally safe fire barriers in the forms of 
           fabrics, pads or battings which furniture manufacturers could use 
           in making furniture highly fire safe.  The Bureau has said, "Many 
           such products, particularly pads and battings can simply replace 
           the standard synthetic battings that are often wrapped around foam 
           pads that are used in upholstered furniture."

        However, the  American Home Furnishings Alliance  (AHFA), representing 
           the home furnishings industry suggests that establishing a barrier 
           fire safety standard would essentially double their product and 
           labor prices, essentially driving them out of business, or making 
           them raise prices beyond the price point at which consumers would 
           want to buy them.  AHFA indicates that a barrier standard would 
           cause manufacturers to have to cover foam padding twice; once for 


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           the barrier and a second time for the outer upholstery.  This 
           raises material costs, but more importantly adding a barrier cover 
           would add to the manufacturers' labor costs, essentially requiring 
           a couch or other upholstered furniture to be covered twice.

        5. Green Chemistry Initiative.  The California Green Chemistry 
           Initiative was launched in 2007, as an effort by Cal/EPA, and the 
           California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC).  Goals of 
           the Green Chemistry Initiative include developing a consistent 
           means for evaluating risk, reducing exposure, encouraging 
           less-toxic industrial processes, and identifying safer, 
           non-chemical alternatives.  In December, 2008, DTSC released its 
           California Green Chemistry Initiative "Final Report," which 
           included six policy recommendations for establishing a 
           comprehensive green chemistry program in California.  Since that 
           time, a Green Ribbon Science Panel was created (AB 1879, Feuer, 
           Chapter 559, Statutes of 2008) to advise the DTSC, regarding 
           science and technical matters for reducing adverse health and 
           environmental impacts of chemicals used in commerce, encouraging 
           the redesign of products, manufacturing processes, and to assist in 
           developing green chemistry and chemicals policy recommendations and 
           implementation strategies; and advise DTSC on the adoption of 
           regulations and priorities regarding hazardous chemicals.  

        Ultimately the work of DTSC in conjunction with the Green Chemistry 
           Initiative and the Green Ribbon Science Panel appears to have the 
           potential to make the changes envisioned by the current bill 
           irrelevant, or even misplaced.  

           However, proponents of the bill are quick to argue that the results 
           from the green chemistry efforts regarding fire retardants and 
           environmental safety are still years away from showing fruitful 
           results, and the recommendations could replace one fire retardant 
           with another that may have as bad or worse an impact on health 

        6. Phase Out of Chemicals.  Opponents of the bill have pointed out 
           that chemicals such as DecaBDE are being phased out through 
           agreements between The Federal Environmental Protection Agency and 
           the chemical industries.  Although these steps are acclaimed by all 
           as being appropriate measures to take to help protect human health 
           and the environment, proponents of this bill point out that the 
           chemical industry typically replaces one phased out chemical with 
           another that is configured slightly differently, and the concern 
           over the health hazards of the new chemical still remains.  


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        7. Prior Legislation.   SB 1291  (Leno) of 2010, would have required the 
           Department of Toxic Substances Control to include, as a chemical 
           under consideration, any chemical that is used, or is proposed to 
           be used, as a flame retardant, in accordance with the review 
           process (Green Chemistry Process) under the current chemical of 
           concern regulations.  That bill was placed on the inactive file on 
           the Senate Floor and died on file.

         SB 772  (Leno) of 2009, would have exempted "juvenile products," as 
           defined, from the fire retardant requirements pursuant to federal 
           law and the regulations of the Bureau of Home Furnishings and 
           Thermal Insulation (Bureau), except that the Bureau could have, by 
           regulation modifed this exemption if the Bureau determined that any 
           juvenile products posed a serious fire hazard.  That bill died in 
           the Assembly Appropriations Committee.  
         Note  : the provisions of this bill have been largely implemented 
           through regulation by the Bureau effective December 29, 2010.

         AB 706  (Leno) of 2008, commencing July 1, 2010, would have required 
           bedding products to comply with certain requirements, including 
           that they not contain a chemical or component not in compliance 
           with alternatives assessment requirements as specified, and 
           required the DTSC to develop and adopt methodology for the 
           coordination and conduct of an alternative assessment to review the 
           classes of chemicals used to meet the fire retardancy standards set 
           by the Bureau, and to meet other requirements as specified.  That 
           bill failed passage on the Senate Floor.

         AB 302  (Chan, Chapter 205, Statutes of 2003) banned the use of penta 
           and octa brominated diphenyl ethers after January 1, 2008.
        8. Arguments in Support.  The numerous supporters of this bill argue 
           that biomonitoring studies show that toxic flame retardants are now 
           routinely found in the bodies of humans across North America, and 
           at the highest levels in California.  The chemicals migrate from 
           consumer products into dust and make their way into humans, pets, 
           wildlife and the food supply.  Testing of umbilical cord blood 
           shows that our babies are born pre-polluted with toxic flame 
           retardants, and proponents affirm that California's ineffective 
           furniture flammability standard is the major cause of this problem. 
            They further argue that "dozens of peer reviewed scientific 
           research studies link fire retardant chemicals to cancer, 
           neurological impairments, reproductive problems, thyroid effects, 
           and endocrine disruption.  Toddlers, who are particularly 
           vulnerable, often have a 3 times higher level of flame retardants 
           in their bodies compared to their parents, and California children 


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           have some of the highest levels of some toxic flame retardants in 
           their bodies."

        In sponsoring the bill,  Health Officers Association of California  
           (HOAC), argues that under current law, furniture sold in California 
           must meet specific flammability standards that, in effect, require 
           the incorporation of dangerous chemicals known as Halogenated Flame 
           Retardants into our household furniture in quantities measured in 
           pounds.  Chemically related to both PCB's and dioxins - some of the 
           most toxic and persistent chemicals in our environment - these 
           Halogenated Flame Retardants have been linked to hormone 
           disruption, reproductive toxicity, and cancer according to HOAC.

        Also sponsoring the bill, the  Consumer Federation of California  , 
           states that in February 2010, "the Environmental Protection Agency 
           recommended that consumers avoid products that are labeled as 
           meeting California's TB 117.  The chemicals required to be used for 
           fire retardant home furnishings as required by TB 117 are 
           associated with endocrine disruption, neurological and 
           developmental impairments, cancer, reduced IQ and infertility."  

         Trauma Foundation  also sponsors the bill writing that in 1979, the 
           Trauma Foundation launched an educational and advocacy campaign to 
           regulate cigarettes as a fire hazard.  Since cigarette ignitions of 
           furniture and other products are the leading cause of fire death in 
           California and the nation, modifying cigarettes to guarantee that 
           they "self extinguish" when dropped on bedding, mattresses or 
           furniture became the goal of the campaign.  The campaign came to 
           fruition in California when Gov. Schwarzenegger signed legislation 
           on October 7, 2005 that mandated all cigarettes sold in California 
           after January 1, 2007, meet a fire safety performance standard to 
           prevent furniture fires.  Since 2007, the same performance standard 
           has become law in all 50 states.  Finally, the national fire data 
           is detecting significant declines in cigarette ignited furniture 
           fires.  Trauma Foundation cites the John R. Hall, of the National 
           Fire Protection Association, Fire Analysis and Research Division, 
           stating: " is currently projected that smoking-material 
           (cigarette) structure fire deaths will be down by 56-77% from 2003, 
           the last year before any state implemented the fire safe cigarette 
                                                                                  law."  Trauma Foundation suggests that because of the public health 
           success of fire safe cigarettes, attention must be focused on 
           modifying the out-dated furniture fire standard TB 117.  Currently, 
           to comply with TB 117, toxic flame retardants are used.  It is no 
           longer necessary to force the foam and furniture industry to comply 
           with a fire standard that can only be met by the introduction of 
           toxic compounds.  Fire safe cigarettes (and the overall reduction 


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           in cigarette smoking) necessitates that TB 117 be modified to 
           reflect new circumstances according to Trauma Foundation.

         American Home Furnishings Alliance  (AHFA), the world's largest trade 
           organization representing the home furnishings industry, supports 
           the bill, stating that TB 117 focuses on small open flame ignition 
           sources, and cites the CPSC in arguing the TB 117 does not provide 
           meaningful improved performance.  AHFA, instead suggests that a 
           balance should exist between fire and chemical risks, and that a 
           focus on smolder resistant materials would be a good guiding 
           principle.  This would help to transition California toward the 
           likely national approach to upholstered furniture regulation, 
           according to AHFA.  

         Vytenis Babrauskas, Ph.D., President of Fire Science and Technology, 
           Inc  ., researcher and former head of the combustion toxicology 
           program for the National Institute of Standards and Technology 
           states that "from a fire safety point of view-the TB117, as it is 
           presently written, is a useless test method."  Dr. Babrauskas, 
           states, "For the fire hazard properties of a consumer product to be 
           improved, one of two things (or both) must be done: (1) it must be 
           made resistant to ignition from small-flame sources; or, (2) when 
           it does get ignited (from flames that may not necessarily be 
           small), its heat release rate must be substantively decreased, 
           since heat release rate is not only a direct hazard to persons, but 
           is correlated to the production of various toxic smoke components.  
           The current TB117 test does neither: it does not result in 
           furniture being resistant to small-flame ignition, nor does it 
           result in furniture having a significantly reduced heat release 

        Dr. Babrauskas, concludes that it is clear that the Bureau of Home 
           Furnishings and Thermal Insulation should fundamentally revise the 
           existing TB117 standard so that neither people nor the environment 
           is exposed to toxic harm from chemicals that do not serve a valid 
           fire safety purpose.  

        9. Arguments in Opposition.  Joe Kerr, President,  Orange County 
           Professional Firefighters Association  , argues that the bill 
           undermines California's vanguard fire safety standards, stating, 
           "In a state that now is considered to have a year-round fire 
           season, weakening our fires safety standards is not the direction 
           California's legislation should go."

         Teamsters Local Union No. 63  (Local 63) writes that it cannot endorse 
           a measure that would increase the risk to workers, and that the 


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           bill will set back decades of safe and effective laws that force 
           manufacturers to produce U.S. made products that allow for valuable 
           minutes to save lives and let firefighters stop fires.  Local 63 
           further argues that the test this law would change ignores the most 
           important sources of fires in the home; candle fires, electrical 
           fires, children playing with fire and kitchen fires.  

        Alicia Hamilton of  TRNTV  and Dr. Alexander Hamilton, of the  Community 
           Baptist Church  , Compton, writes, "That due to the common 
           differences of  research it shows that fire has a far greater 
           devastation within minority groups than other factions."  They 
           further quote John Hall, Jr. of the National Fire Protection 
           Association's Research Division, "Race and ethnicity tend to be 
           highly correlated with fire death rates . . . the most 
           statistically powerful predictors of fire death risk are, in order, 
           race, education, and poverty."

         Citizens for Fire Safety Institute  (CFFSI) representing manufacturers 
           of fire safety products, as well as burn safety physicians, medical 
           burn centers and fire safety education groups opposes the bill 
           arguing that it would change California' s flammability fire safety 
           standard, which is generally regarded as the highest fire safety 
           standard in the country.  CFSI lists a number of reasons for its 

        (1)  CFFSI argues the bill compromises fire safety, by requiring that 
           the Bureau adopt a "lesser" fire safety standard ("smolder" versus 
           "flammability").  CFSI indicates that national fire statistics show 
           that open flame is the second leading cause of fires resulting in 
           death.  Changing California's fire safety standard to a "smolder" 
           test will result in a lower fire safety standard and could place 
           many individuals and residences at greater risk in the event of a 

        (2)  CFSI states that by requiring the Bureau to adopt a "smolder" 
           test standard that does not require the use of chemical fire 
           retardants and does not "compromise fire safety" the bill creates 
           an inherent conflict for the Bureau in the statute.  

        (3)  CFSI further argues the bill is the wrong policy, stating as 
           recent at 2007, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission adopted 
           a flammability standard, similar to California's standard, for all 
           mattresses sold in the U.S., choosing "flammability" as the highest 
           level of protection for consumers.  The U.S. Fire Administration 
           recommends to consumers that one important step they can take to 
           protect themselves and their families is to purchase mattresses 


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           which meet this standard.  

        (4)  CFSI further suggests by requiring the Bureau to change the 
           current labeling for upholstered furniture in California, the bill 
           would create a source of confusion, for consumers.  CFSI argues 
           that when purchasing mattresses, California consumers would 
           continue to see the "flammability standard" label required by 
           federal law, yet when purchasing other furniture consumers would 
           see a different label reflecting a "smolder" standard.  This will 
           lead to confusion for consumers on how to best protect themselves 
           and their families, according to CFSI.

         Support  :  

        Commonweal (Sponsor)
        Consumer Federation of California (Sponsor)
        Friends of the Earth (Sponsor)
        Green Science Policy Institute (Sponsor)
        Health Officers Association of California (Sponsor)
        Just Transition Alliance (Sponsor)
        Physicians for Social Responsibility-Los Angeles (Sponsor)
        Trauma Foundation (Sponsor)
        American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, District IX
        American Home Furnishings Alliance
        Architects, Designers and Planners for Social Responsibility, 
        Northern California Chapter
        Asian Pacific Environmental Network
        BANANAS, Inc.
        Black Women for Wellness
        Breast Cancer Action
        Breast Cancer Fund
        Breathe California
        California Association of Sanitation Agencies
        California Professional Firefighters
        Californians for a Healthy and Green Economy
        Center for Environmental Health
        Clean Water Action
        Consumer Attorneys of California
        East Yard Communities for Environmental Justice
        Environment California
        Environmental Working Group
        Fire Science and Technology Inc.
        Healthy Building Network


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        Herman Miller, Inc.
        International Association of Firefighters
        Just Transition Alliance
        Los Angeles Metropolitan Churches
        Natural Resources Defense Council
        Polyurethane Foam Association
        San Diego Coastkeeper
        San Francisco Public Utilities Commission
        Sierra Club California
        Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition
        Stentorians of Los Angeles County
        Trendway Corporation
        United States Green Building Council, California Advocacy 

         Opposition  :  

        Citizens for Fire Safety Institute
        Community Baptist Church, Compton
        National Association of State Fire Marshals
        Orange County Professional Firefighters Association
        Shriners Hospitals for Children, Northern California
        Teamsters Local Union No. 63

        Consultant:G. V. Ayers