AB 2181, as amended, Bloom. Building standards: seismic retrofit.
Existing law authorizes a city, city and county, or county to establish, by ordinance, building seismic retrofit standards applicable to the seismic retrofit of any buildings identified, as specified, by the city, city and county, or county as being hazardous to life if an earthquake occurs. Existing law identifies specified types of buildings as potentially hazardous under these provisions, including certain unreinforced masonry buildings and specified woodframe, multiunit residential buildings constructed before January 1, 1978.
This bill would additionally authorize each city, city and county, or county to require that owners
begin delete assessend delete the
earthquake hazard of soft story and older concrete buildings, and would include concrete residential buildings that were constructed prior to the adoption of local building codes that ensure ductility, as specified, as potentially hazardous if an earthquake occurs. The bill would authorize a city, city and county, or to employ seismic evaluation of older concrete residential buildings to address individual seismically hazardous buildings without regard to how the buildings came to the attention of its officials. The bill would require the seismic retrofit of a concrete residential building identified as potentially hazardous to comply with begin delete the recommendations of a qualified expert, with nationally recognized research recommendations, or withend delete
a nationally recognized model begin delete cakeend delete, as specified.
Vote: majority. Appropriation: no. Fiscal committee: no. State-mandated local program: no.
The people of the State of California do enact as follows:
Section 19160 of the Health and Safety Code is
2amended to read:
The Legislature finds and declares that:
4(a) The harmful effects of future earthquakes can be reduced
5through sound retrofitting programs, also known as reconstruction
7(b) Because the United States Geological Survey predicts a
8greater than 99 percent likelihood that California will experience
9moderate to severe earthquakes before 2038, increased efforts to
10reduce earthquake hazards should be encouraged and supported.
11(c) Tens of thousands of buildings subject to severe earthquake
12hazards continue to be a serious danger to the life and safety of
13hundreds of thousands of Californians who live and work in them
14in the event of an earthquake. The buildings themselves are also
16(d) Improvement of safety to life is the primary goal of building
begin deletereconstruction end deleteto reduce earthquake hazards.
18(e) Because every dollar spent on mitigation saves several
19dollars in future postdisaster expenditures, a second major goal is
20to reduce public costs for disaster relief.
21(f) In order to make the evaluation and
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22 of buildings that are at high risk of seismic failure economically
23feasible, and to improve the safety of life in these buildings,
24building standards enacted by local government for building
begin delete reconstructionend delete may differ from building standards
26which govern new building construction.
27(g) Because higher costs will
begin delete reconstructionend delete, the standards that
29govern new buildings should not apply to
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30 unless they are needed to achieve the desired increase in seismic
9(h) “Older concrete residential buildings,” also known as
10“nonductile concrete residential buildings” and
begin delete “pre-1980end delete concrete residential buildings,”
12are a subset of concrete buildings that may be unable to resist
13earthquake motion. They include lift-slab buildings
14with concrete lateral force resisting systems.
15(i) These buildings were a prevalent construction type in highly
16seismic zones prior to the mid-1970s, are an important component
17of the state’s housing stock, and are in jeopardy of being lost in
18the event of a major earthquake.
19(j) The California Office of Emergency Services reports that
20concrete buildings, particularly older ones with high numbers of
21occupants, can collapse and kill hundreds, and are the fastest
22growing cause of earthquake losses around the world.
23(k) During an earthquake, older concrete residential buildings
24may create dangerous conditions, as illustrated by the catastrophic
25damage or collapse of older concrete buildings in the earthquakes
26of San Fernando, Loma Prieta, and Northridge, California (1971,
begin delete 1994),end delete
Kobe, Japan begin delete (1995),end delete Chi Chi,
begin delete (1999),end delete Kocaeli, Duzce, and Bingol, Turkey begin delete (1999, Sumatra
291999, and 2003),end delete
begin delete (2005),end delete
begin delete (2005),end delete Sichuan, China begin delete (2008),end delete Haiti
begin delete(2010)end delete and Christchurch, New Zealand (2011).
32(l) California instituted building code changes in the mid-1970s
33to prevent these problems in future construction, but four decades
34later, the great majority of California’s concrete buildings that
35were constructed before these changes have still not been evaluated
37(m) The assistance of the public is necessary in identifying older
38concrete buildings, because no accurate inventory of
39older concretebuildings exists, and none can be
begin delete byend delete external appearances or an examination of
3(n) Once identified, older concrete buildings must
4be evaluated individually
begin delete by a qualified architect or engineerend delete to
5assess their seismic capacity and whether
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6 is necessary.
7(o) The failure of older concrete apartment buildings
8is likely to be the source of a disproportionate share of the public
9shelter population in areas of the state where they are occupied by
10the very poor, the very old, and the very young.
11(p) “Soft story” residential buildings are a subset of multistory
12woodframe structures that may have inadequately braced lower
13stories that may not be able to resist earthquake motion.
14(q) Soft story residential buildings are an important component
15of the state’s housing stock and are in jeopardy of being lost in the
16event of a major earthquake.
17(r) Soft story residential buildings were responsible for 7,700
18of the 16,000 housing units rendered uninhabitable by the Loma
19 Prieta earthquake and over 34,000 of the housing units rendered
20uninhabitable by the Northridge earthquake.
21(s) During an earthquake, soft story residential buildings may
22create dangerous conditions as illustrated in the Northridge
23Meadows apartment failure that claimed the lives of 16 residents.
24(t) The collapse of soft story residential buildings can ignite
25fires that threaten trapped occupants and neighboring buildings
26and complicates emergency response.
27(u) The Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG)
28estimates that soft story residential buildings will be responsible
29for 66 percent of the uninhabitable housing following an event on
30the Hayward fault.
31(v) The failure of soft story residential buildings is estimated
32by ABAG to be the source of a disproportionate share of the public
33shelter population because they tend to be occupied by the very
34poor, the very old, and the very young.
begin deleteThe end deleteSeismic Safety Commission begin delete hasend delete
36 recommended that legislation be enacted to require state and local
37building code enforcement agencies to identify potentially
38hazardous buildings and to adopt mandatory mitigation programs
39that will significantly reduce unacceptable hazards in buildings
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P5 1(x) The current nationally recognized model
begin delete codesend delete relating
2to the retrofit of existing buildings
begin delete areend delete the International Existing
begin delete and the Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing . However, it is not
4Buildings by the American Society of Civil Engineersend delete
7the intent of the Legislature, if other
begin delete research-based model codes relating to the retrofit of existing
8recommendations orend delete
9buildings are developed, to limit the California Building Standards
10Commission or a local government, pursuant to Section 19162, to
11adopting a particular research-based recommendation or model
12code. Equally, the Legislature does not intend for local
13governments to delay needed evaluation and retrofitting programs
14in the hope that improved methods to evaluate and retrofit buildings
15may be developed. Rather, the Legislature finds that existing
16scientific knowledge permits immediate evaluations and retrofitting
17of older concrete buildings to significantly increase the
18safety of life in and reduce earthquake damage to seismically
19hazardous older concrete buildings.
20(y) Therefore, it is the intent of the Legislature to encourage
21cities and counties to address the seismic safety of older concrete
22residential buildings and soft story residential buildings
begin delete by programs to inform owners,
23encouraging and imitating end delete
24residents, and the public about the dangers of these potentially
25hazardous buildings, mandate their evaluation at owner expense,
26and require retrofitting to reduce the seismic
27risk in those that are unacceptably hazardous.
Section 19161 of the Health and Safety Code is
29amended to read:
(a) Each city, city and county, or county, may assess
31the earthquake hazard in its jurisdiction or require that owners
begin deleteassessend delete the earthquake hazard of soft story begin delete andend delete older concrete buildings, and thereby
34identify buildings subject to its jurisdiction as being potentially
35hazardous to life in the event of an earthquake. Potentially
36hazardous buildings include, but are not limited to, all of the
38(1) Unreinforced masonry buildings constructed prior to the
39adoption of local building codes requiring earthquake resistant
P6 1design of buildings that are constructed of unreinforced masonry
2wall construction and exhibit any of the following characteristics:
3(A) Exterior parapets or ornamentation that may fall.
4(B) Exterior walls that are not anchored to the floors or roof.
5(C) Lack of an effective system to resist seismic forces.
6(2) Woodframe, multiunit residential buildings constructed
7before January 1, 1978, where the ground floor portion of the
8structure contains parking or other similar open floor space that
9causes soft, weak, or open-front wall lines, as provided in a
10nationally recognized model code relating to the retrofit of existing
11buildings or substantially equivalent standards.
12(3) Concrete residential buildings, including lift-slab
13 buildings with concrete lateral force resisting systems, that were
14constructed prior to the adoption of local building codes that ensure
18(b) Structural evaluations made pursuant to this section shall
19be made by an architect as defined in Section 5500 of the Business
20and Professions Code, or a civil or structural engineer registered
21pursuant to Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 6700) of Division
223 of the Business and Professions Code, or staff of the enforcing
23agency, as described in Section 17960, supervised by an architect
24or civil or structural engineer authorized by this subdivision to
25make the structural evaluations.
Section 19162 of the Health and Safety Code is
27amended to read:
(a) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 19100
29or 19150 or any other provision of law, the governing body of any
30city, city and county, or county may, by ordinance, establish
31building seismic retrofit standards applicable to the seismic retrofit
32of any buildings identified pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision
33(a) of Section 19161 by the city, city and county, or county as
34being potentially hazardous to life in the event of an earthquake.
35(b) (1) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 19100, 19150,
36or any other provision of law, the governing body of any city, city
37and county, or county may, by ordinance, establish building seismic
38retrofit standards applicable to the seismic retrofit of any buildings
39identified pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of Section
4019161 by the city, city and county, or county as being potentially
P7 1hazardous to life in the event of an earthquake. Any standards
2established pursuant to this section shall apply until the effective
3date of building standards adopted by the California Building
4Standards Commission relating to the retrofit of existing buildings,
5if any, at which time the standards adopted by the commission as
6amended by the city, county, or city and county pursuant to Section
717958.5 shall apply.
8(2) A local ordinance establishing building seismic retrofit
9standards applicable to soft story residential structures adopted
10before January 1, 2006, shall remain in full force and effect until
11the effective date of building standards adopted by the California
12Building Standards Commission relating to the retrofit of existing
13buildings unless the city, county, or city and county after January
141, 2006, adopts an ordinance pursuant to paragraph (1).
15(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 19100 or 19150
16or any other provision of law, the governing body of any city, city
17and county, or county may do
begin delete bothend delete of the following:
18(1) Employ seismic evaluations of older concrete residential
19buildings, including lift-slab buildings with concrete
20lateral force resisting systems, to address individual seismically
21hazardous buildings, without regard to how these buildings came
22to the attention of its officials.
23(2) Establish, by ordinance, building seismic retrofit standards
24applicable to the seismic retrofit of any of these buildings that are
25potentially hazardous to life in the event of an earthquake. Any
26standards established pursuant to this paragraph shall apply until
27the effective date of applicable building standards adopted by the
28California Building Standards Commission relating to the retrofit
29of existing buildings, if any, at which time the standards adopted
30by the commission as amended by the city, city and county or
31county pursuant to Section 17958.5 shall apply.
32(d) Building seismic retrofit standards adopted pursuant to this
33section may be applied uniformly throughout the city, city and
34county, or county, or may be applied in specific areas designated
35by the city, city and county, or county, or to specific buildings
36within the city, city and county, or county
begin delete if those buildings are described in paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of
39(e) For purposes of this chapter, “seismic retrofit” means either
40structural strengthening or providing the means necessary to modify
P8 1the seismic response that would otherwise be expected by an
2existing building during an earthquake, to significantly reduce
3hazards to life and safety while also providing for the substantial
4safe ingress and egress of the building occupants immediately after
Section 19163 of the Health and Safety Code is
7amended to read:
Any local ordinance adopted pursuant to Section 19162
9shall require the following:
10(a) Any seismic retrofit of any building identified pursuant to
11paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 19161 as being
12hazardous to life in the event of an earthquake shall provide for
13the reasonable adequacy of all of the following:
14(1) Unreinforced masonry walls to resist normal and inplane
16(2) The anchorage and stability of exterior parapets and
18(3) The anchorage of unreinforced masonry walls to the floors
20(4) Floor and roof diaphragms.
21(5) The development of a complete bracing system to resist
begin deleteAny end deleteseismic retrofit of any building identified pursuant
24to paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 19161 as potentially
25hazardous shall comply with a nationally recognized model code
26relating to the retrofit of existing buildings or substantially
27equivalent standards. If the city, county, or city and county adopts
28 local amendments to those provisions, it shall determine that the
29amendments are consistent with Section 17958.5.
begin deleteAny end deleteseismic retrofit of any building identified pursuant
31to paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of Section 19161 as potentially
32hazardous shall comply with
begin delete the recommendations of a qualified
33expert under paragraph (b)end delete
begin delete end delete begin deleteof Section 19161 or with nationally a nationally recognized
34recognized research recommendations,end delete
35model code relating to the retrofit of existing buildings, or
36substantially equivalent standards. If the city, city and county, or
37county adopts local amendments to those provisions, it shall
38determine that the amendments are consistent with Section 17958.5.
39(d) Seismic retrofit of any building or portions of any building
40shall be designed to resist and withstand the seismic forces from
P9 1any direction as set forth in the building seismic retrofit standards
2using the allowable working stresses adopted pursuant to this
4(e) The governing board of any city, city and county, or county
5may establish, by ordinance, standards and procedures to fulfill
6the intent of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) without regard to
7the remainder of the requirements specified above.