BILL ANALYSIS                                                                                                                                                                                                    






                                                                    AB 1185


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          Date of Hearing:  May 13, 2015


                           ASSEMBLY COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION


                              Patrick O'Donnell, Chair


          AB 1185  
          (Ridley-Thomas) - As Amended May 6, 2015


          SUBJECT:  Los Angeles Unified School District:  best value  
          procurement:  pilot program


          SUMMARY: Authorizes the Los Angeles Unified School District  
          (LAUSD) to utilize a best value procurement process as a pilot  
          project until December 31, 2020 for construction projects over  
          $1 million.  Specifically, this bill:  


          1)Expresses the intent of the Legislature to enable school  
            districts to use cost-effective options for building and  
            modernizing school facilities.  Finds and declares that the  
            Legislature has recognized the merits of best value  
            procurement through its authorization of the method by the  
            University of California (UC).  Through UC's report, best  
            value procurement method has been found to reduce contract  
            delays, change orders, and claims, thereby producing savings  
            in both contract costs and administration.

          2)Establishes the following definitions:

             a)   "Apprenticeable Occupation" means an occupation for  
               which the Chief of the Division of Apprenticeship Standards  
               (DAS) had approved an apprenticeship program pursuant to  
               Section 3075 of the Labor Code prior to January 1, 2015.











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             b)   "Best value" means a procurement process whereby the  
               selected bidder may be selected on the basis of objective  
               criteria for evaluating the qualifications of bidders with  
               the resulting selection representing the best combination  
               of price and qualifications.

             c)   "Best value contract" means a contract entered into  
               pursuant to this bill.

             d)   "Best value contractor" means a properly licensed  
               person, firm, or corporation that submits a bid for, or is  
               awarded, a best value contract.

             e)   "Best Value Score" means the resulting score when the  
               school district divides the bidder's price by the bidder's  
               qualification score.

             f)   "Demonstrated management competency" means the  
               experience, competency, capability, and capacity of the  
               proposed management staffing to complete projects of  
               similar size, scope, or complexity.

             g)   "Financial condition" means the financial resources  
               needed to perform the contract. The criteria used to  
               evaluate a bidder's financial condition shall include, at a  
               minimum, capacity to obtain all required payment bonds, and  
               required insurance.

             h)   "Governing board" or "governing board of the school  
               district" means the governing board of the LAUSD.

             i)   "Labor compliance" means the ability to comply with, and  
               past performance with, contract and statutory requirements  
               for the payment of wages and qualifications of the  
               workforce. The criteria used to evaluate a bidder's labor  
               compliance shall include, at a minimum, the bidder's  
               ability to comply with the apprenticeship requirements of  
               the California Apprenticeship Council and the Department of  











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               Industrial Relations, its past conformance with such  
               requirements, and its past conformance with requirements to  
               pay prevailing wages on public works projects.

             j)   "Project" has the same meaning as "public project" is  
               defined in subdivision (c) of Section 22002 of the Public  
               Contract Code (PCC).

             aa)   "Qualifications" means financial condition, relevant  
               experience, demonstrated management competency, labor  
               compliance, the safety record of the bidder, and, to the  
               extent relevant, the preceding qualifications as they  
               pertain to all subcontractors proposed to be used by the  
               bidder for designated portions of the work.

             bb)  "Relevant experience" means the experience, competency,  
               capability, and capacity to complete projects of similar  
               size, scope, or complexity.

             cc)  "Safety record" shall be deemed "acceptable" as  
               determine by the school district.  In its determination,  
               the school district shall consider, but is not required to  
               find, a contractor's safety record as acceptable if its  
               experience modification rate for the most recent three-year  
               period is an average of 1.00 or less, and its average total  
               recordable injury or illness rate and average lost work  
               rate for the most recent three-year period do not exceed  
               the applicable statistical standards for its business  
               category, or if the bidder is a party to an alternative  
               dispute resolution system as provided for in Section 3201.5  
               of the Labor Code.

             dd)  "School district" means the LAUSD.

             ee)  "Skilled and trained workforce" means a workforce that  
               meets of the following conditions:

               i)     All workers are either skilled journeypersons or  
                 apprentices registered in an apprenticeship program  











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                 approved by the Chief of the Division of Apprenticeship  
                 Standards.
               ii)    Individuals employed to perform work on the contract  
                 or project are comprised of skilled journeypersons and  
                 subcontractors at every tier that are graduates of an  
                 apprenticeship program approved by the chief or located  
                 outside California and approved for federal purposes  
                 pursuant to the apprenticeship regulations adopted by the  
                 federal Secretary of Labor, meeting the specified  
                 percentages and timeline:

                  (1)       At least 30% by January 1, 2016.

                  (2)       At least 40% by January 1, 2017.

                  (3)       At least 50% by January 1, 2018.

                  (4)       At least 60% by January 1, 2019.

                  (5)       At least 70% by January 1, 2020.

               iii)   Specifies that for an apprenticeable occupation in  
                 which no apprenticeship program had been approved by the  
                 Chief of DAS before January 1, 1995, up to one-half of  
                 the graduation percentage requirements may be satisfied  
                 by skilled journeypersons who commenced working in the  
                 apprenticable occupation prior to the chief's approval of  
                 an apprenticeship program for that occupation in the  
                 county in which the project is located.

               iv)    "Skilled journeyperson" means a worker who either:  
                 1) graduated from an apprenticeship program for the  
                 applicable occupation that was approved by the chief or  
                 located outside California and approved for federal  
                 purposes pursuant to apprenticeship regulations adopted  
                 by the Secretary of Labor, or 2) has at least as many  
                 hours of on-the-job experience in an applicable  
                 occupation as would be required to graduate from an  
                 apprenticeship program for the applicable occupation that  











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                 is approved by the chief. 

          3)Specifies that the governing board of the school district  
            shall let any contract for a project pursuant to this bill to  
            the selected bidder that represents the best value or else  
            reject all bids.

          4)Specifies that the bidder may be selected on the basis of the  
            best value to the governing board of the school district.   
            Requires the governing board of the school district to adopt  
            and publish procedures and required guidelines for evaluating  
            the qualifications of the bidders that ensure the best value  
            selections by the school district are conducted in a fair and  
            impartial manner. Requires the procedures and guidelines to  
            conform to this bill and to be mandatory for the school  
            district when using best value selection.

          5)Specifies that if the governing board of the school district  
            deems it to be for the best interest of the school district,  
            the governing board of the school district, on the refusal or  
            failure of the selected bidder for a project to execute a  
            tendered contract, may award it to the bidder with the second  
            lowest best value score.  If the second bidder fails or  
            refuses to execute the contract, the governing board of the  
            school district may likewise award it to the third lowest best  
            value score.

          6)Specifies that if the school district elects to award a  
            project pursuant to this bill, retention proceeds withheld by  
            the district from the selected best value contractor shall not  
            exceed 5% if a performance and payment bond, issued by an  
            admitted surety insurer, is required in the solicitation of  
            bids.

          7)Specifies that in a contract between the selected best value  
            contractor and a subcontractor, and in a contract between a  
            subcontractor and any subcontractor thereunder, the percentage  
            of the retention proceeds withheld shall not exceed the  
            percentage specified in the contract between the district and  











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            the selected best value contractor. If the selected best value  
            contractor provides written notice to a subcontractor that,  
            prior to or at the time the bid is requested, a bond may be  
            required and the subcontractor subsequently is unable or  
            refuses to furnish a bond to the selected best value  
            contractor, then the selected best value contractor may  
            withhold retention proceeds in excess of the percentage  
            specified in the contract between the district and the  
            selected best value contractor from any payment made by the  
            selected best value contractor to the subcontractor.

          8)Provides that all subcontractors that are identified in the  
            proposal shall be afforded protections under the Subletting  
            and Subcontracting Fair Practices Act.



          9)Requires the governing board of a school district to use the  
            following procedure when awarding best value contracts:

             a)   The governing board of the school district shall prepare  
               a solicitation for bids and give notice pursuant to PCC  
               Section 20112.
             b)   The governing board of the school district shall  
               establish a procedure to prequalify bidders.  Specifies  
               that information submitted by the bidder as part of the  
               evaluation process shall not be open to public inspection  
               to the extent that information is exempt from disclosure  
               under the California Public Records Act. 
               i)     Specifies that a best value entity shall not be  
                 prequalified or shortlisted unless the entity provides an  
                 enforceable commitment to the governing board that the  
                 entity and its subcontractors at every tier will use a  
                 skilled and trained workforce to perform all work on the  
                 project or contract that falls within an apprenticeable  
                 occupation in the building and construction trades.
               ii)    Provides that an entity's commitment that a skilled  
                 and trained workforce will be used to perform the project  
                 or contract may be established by any of the following:











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                  (1)       The entity's agreement with the governing  
                    board of the school district that the entity and its  
                    subcontractors at every tier will comply with the  
                    requirements specified in this bill and that the  
                    entity will provide the director with evidence, on a  
                    monthly basis while the project or contract is being  
                    performed, that the entity and its subcontractors are  
                    complying with the requirements of this bill.
                  (2)       If the governing board has entered into a  
                    project labor agreement that will bind all contractors  
                    and subcontractors performing work on the project or  
                    contract and that includes the requirements of this  
                    bill, the entity's agreement that it will become a  
                    party to that project labor agreement.
                  (3)       Evidence that the entity has entered into a  
                    project labor agreement that includes the requirements  
                    of this bill and that will bind the entity and all its  
                    subcontractors at every tier performing the project or  
                    contract.
             c)   Each solicitation for bids shall do all of the  
               following:
               i)     Invite prequalified bidders to submit sealed bids in  
                 the manner prescribed by this bill.
               ii)    Include a section identifying and describing the  
                 following:
                  (1)       Criteria that the governing board of the  
                    school district will consider in evaluating the  
                    qualifications of the bidders.
                  (2)       The methodology and rating or weighting system  
                    that will be used by the governing board of the school  
                    district in evaluating bids and specifically whether  
                    proposals will be rated according to numeric or  
                    qualitative values.
                  (3)       The relative importance or weight assigned to  
                    the criteria for evaluating the qualifications of  
                    bidders identified in the request for bids.
             d)   Final evaluation of the bidders shall be done in a  
               manner that prevents the identity of the bidders and the  
               cost or price information from being revealed in evaluating  











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               the qualifications of the bidders prior to completion of  
               qualification scoring.

          10)Requires the selection of the best value contractor to be  
            made as follows:

             a)   The school district shall evaluate the qualifications of  
               the bidders based solely upon the criteria set forth in the  
               solicitation documents, and shall assign a qualification  
               score to each bid.
             b)   Qualification scores shall be determined by using only  
               the criteria and selection procedures specifically  
               identified in the request for proposals.  The following  
               minimum factors, however, shall be weighed as deemed  
               appropriate by the school districts:
               i)     Relevant experience.
               ii)    Safety record.
               iii)   Other factors identified in the request for  
                 proposal.
             c)   To determine the best value contractor, the governing  
               board of the school district shall divide each bidder's  
               price by its qualifications score.  A preference of up to  
               5% shall be applied to the price of a bid submitted by a  
               small business, as defined by the school district, before  
               dividing the bidder's price by its qualification score. The  
               lowest resulting cost per quality point will represent the  
               best value bid. The award of the contract shall be made to  
               the bidder whose bid is determined, by the school district  
               in writing, to be the best value to the school district. 
             d)   The governing board of the school district shall issue a  
               written decision of its contract award or else reject all  
               bids.
             e)   Upon issuance of a contract award, the governing board  
               of the school district shall publicly announce its award  
               identifying the project, the project price, and the best  
               value contractor, to which the award is made, as well as  
               the prices, qualification scores, and resulting costs per  
               qualification point for all responsive bidders.  The  
               contract file shall include documentation sufficient to  











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               support the decision to award.

          11)Requires a school district that uses the best value  
            procurement method pursuant to this bill to  submit to the  
            Legislative Analyst the following reports completed by an  
            independent third party:

             a)   An interim report on or before July 1, 2018.
             b)   A final report on or before January 1, 2020.
             c)   A report shall include, but is not limited to, the  
               following information:
               i)     A description of the projects awarded using the best  
                 value procedures.
               ii)    The contract award amounts.
               iii)   The best value contractors awarded the projects.
               iv)    A description of any written protests concerning any  
                 aspect of the solicitation, bid, or award of the best  
                 value contracts, including the resolution of the  
                 protests.
               v)     A description of the prequalification process.
               vi)    The criteria used to evaluate the bids, including  
                 the weighting of the criteria and an assessment of the  
                 effectiveness of the methodology.
               vii)   If a project awarded under this article has been  
                 completed, an assessment of the project performance, to  
                 include a summary of any delays or cost increases.

          12)Requires the Legislative Analyst to submit an interim report  
            to the appropriate policy and fiscal committees of the  
            Legislature on the use of the best value procurement method by  
            school districts on or before January 1, 2019, and a final  
            report on or before July 1, 2020. The report may include the  
            information provided from the school district reports pursuant  
            to this bill and any pertinent information that the  
            Legislative Analyst deems instructive in evaluating whether  
            the best value procurement method should be continued,  
            expanded, or prohibited.

          13)Specifies that the best value procurement method is not  











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            intended to change any guideline, criterion, procedure, or  
            requirement of the governing board of the school district to  
            let a contract for a project to the lowest responsible bidder  
            or else reject all bids.

          14)Sunsets on January 1, 2021, and as of that date is repealed,  
            unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January  
            1, 2021, deletes or extends that date.

          15)Finds and declares that a special law is necessary and that a  
            general law cannot be made applicable within the meaning of  
            Section 16 of Article IV of the California Constitution  
            because of the need to establish a pilot project for the LAUSD  
            to determine the potential benefits and consequences of using  
            best value procurement to facilitate infrastructure  
            improvements and ease fiscal impacts.

          EXISTING LAW:  


          1)Requires the governing board of a school district to  
            competitively bid and award to the lowest bidder contracts  
            involving the following:

             a)   An expenditure of $50,000 or more for the purchase of  
               equipment, materials, or supplies, services (except for  
               construction services), and repairs.

             b)   An expenditure of $15,000 or more for a public contract  
               project defined as construction, reconstruction, erection,  
               alteration, renovation, improvement, demolition, repair,  
               painting or repainting of any publicly owned, leased, or  
               operated facility.  (PCC) Sections 20111 and 22002)

          2)Establishes a process, until January 1, 2020, for school  
            district and community college district governing boards to  
            enter into a design-build contract for both the design and  
            construction of education facility projects over $2.5 million.  
             (Education Code (EC) Section 17250.20)  











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          3)Specifies the elements required to be included in a  
            design-build request for proposal (including significant  
            factors, subfactors, methodology, rating and weighting schemes  
            for evaluating proposals) and establishes, among others,  
            prequalification, bonding and labor compliance program  
            requirements (EC Sections 17250.10 - 17250.50 and 81700-81708)

          4)Requires, until January 1, 2019, a school district with an  
            average daily attendance of more than 2,500 using state school  
            facility bond funds for a public project with an expenditure  
            of $1 million or more to require prospective bidders, and if  
            utilized, all electrical, mechanical, and plumbing  
            subcontractors, to complete and submit a standardized  
            prequalification questionnaire and financial statement.  (PCC  
            Section 20111.6)

          5)Authorizes, until January 1, 2017, the UC to use the best  
            value method to award contracts based on best value  
            procedures.  (PCC Section 10506.4)



          FISCAL EFFECT:  None.  This bill is keyed non-fiscal by the  
          Legislative Counsel.


          COMMENTS:  Background.  Under current law, K-12 school districts  
          are required to competitively bid any public works contract over  
          $15,000 and award the contract to the lowest responsible bidder.  
           Under the traditional method for school facility construction,  
          a school district would first hire an architect to design a  
          school facility and then issue a bid for the construction phase,  
          awarding the contract to the lowest bidder.  This process is  
          commonly called "design-bid-build".


          Design Build.  Existing law authorizes two other temporary  
          methods for awarding public contracts that are not based solely  











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          on the lowest bidder.  AB 1402 (Simitian), Chapter 421, Statutes  
          of 2001, established a process called "design-build" that  
          enables a school district to issue a bid for both the design and  
          construction of projects over $10 million and authorizes school  
          districts to consider factors other than cost.  Under a  
          design-build process, a K-12, California Community College (CCC)  
          district, or other public or private agency issues a bid for  
          both design and construction of a facility.  A general  
          contractor may collaborate with an architect/engineer to submit  
                                                      a proposal, or a general contractor may submit the proposal and  
          subcontract with an architect/engineer.  


          Prior to using a design-build process for a project, a school  
          district must make written findings that using the design-build  
          method for the project will meet at least one of the following  
          objectives:  reduce comparable project costs, expedite the  
          project's completions, or provide features not achievable  
          through the traditional design-bid-build process.  The school  
          district must also establish a process to prequalify  
          design-build entities using a standard questionnaire developed  
          by the Department of Industrial Relations.  The questionnaire  
          requires contractors to provide detailed information regarding  
          the company and its financial status.  


          Rather than selecting the contractor based solely on the lowest  
          offer, the K-12 or CCC district may use criteria in addition to  
          cost, which may include qualification, experience, proposed  
          design approach, life cycle costs, project features and project  
          functions.  Based on the criteria selected by a governing board,  
          the proposals are scored and awarded to the bidder whose  
          proposal is considered to be the best value to the school  

















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          district<1>.  Design build contracting can expedite the  
          construction of a project, avoid conflicts between  
          architects/engineers and contractors, and according to  
          experiences from school and CCC districts, reduce costs by  
          reducing change orders once construction begins.  The  
          authorization for design build sunsets on January 1, 2020.      


          Best Value Pilot Program.  SB 667 (Migden), Chapter 367,  
          Statutes of 2006, established a pilot program for the UC.   
          Initially authorized for five years, SB 667 allowed the UC San  
          Francisco to award contracts based on the best value for the  
          university.  Under this process, UC prequalifies bidders, then  
          evaluates the bid based on answers to a separate best value  
          questionnaire and assigns a qualification score.  UC then  
          divides each bidder's price by its qualification score.  The  
          lowest resulting cost per quality point represents the best  
          value bid.


          In a report to the Legislature in January 2010, the UC reported  
          that 23 contracts totaling $158.3 million were issued under the  
          best value pilot program.  Of the 23 contracts, 12 contracts  
          were low bid contracts.  According to the report, the  
          "University Representatives for all these projects [four  
          completed and two almost completed projects] have been unanimous  
          in their praise of this process that has already demonstrated  
          numerous advantages such as decreased bid protests and  
          communication problems, decreased the need for multiple  
          inspections and re-work, decreased disputes, change order  
          requests, claims and litigation and increased incentives for  
          contractors to perform their work safety and to adhere to high  
          labor and quality standards."  UC concludes that the best value  
          ---------------------------


          <1> "Best value" for the purposes of design build does not have  
          the same definition as that proposed by this bill.  For design  
          build, "best value" is defined as "a value determined by  
          objective criteria and may include, but need not be limited to,  
          price, features, functions, life-cycle costs, and other criteria  
          deemed appropriate by the school district."








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          pilot program fosters better quality work, less labor and safety  
          problems, better qualified persons/contractors, better on-time  
          completion, and better on-budget performance.  In 2011, SB 835  
          (Wolk), Chapter 636, Statutes of 2011, expanded the authority to  
          all UC campuses and extended the sunset from January 1, 2012 to  
          January 1, 2017.      


          What does this bill do?  This bill establishes a best value  
          procurement process as a pilot project for LAUSD, in addition to  
          awarding contracts through the traditional design-bid-build  
          process.  "Best value" is defined as a procurement process  
          whereby the selected bidder may be selected on the basis of  
          objective criteria for evaluating the qualifications of bidders  
          with the resulting selection representing the best combination  
          of price and qualifications.  The authority applies to projects  
          over $1 million and will enable LAUSD to consider other factors,  
          in addition to cost, in awarding construction contracts.   


          Guidelines.  The bill requires LAUSD to adopt procedures and  
          required guidelines for evaluating the qualifications of bidders  
          to ensure that the process is fair and impartial.  A  
          prequalification process based on a questionnaire and a rating  
          scale is required, although LAUSD already uses a  
          prequalification process.  The solicitation for bids will invite  
          prequalified bidders to submit sealed bids.  The solicitation  
          for bids must also include information on how the school  
          district will be evaluating the qualification of bidders,  
          including the criteria that will be used, the methodology and  
          the rating or weighting system that will be used, and the weight  
          that will be assigned to the criteria for evaluation.


          Qualification score.  Similar to UC's best value pilot program,  
          this bill requires the LAUSD to evaluate the qualification of  
          the bidders solely upon the criteria specified in the  
          solicitation documents and assign a qualification score to each  
          bid.  A bidder's price is divided by the qualification score  











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          received by the bidder.  The bidder with the lowest cost per  
          quality point represents the best value bid.  The factors  
          required to be used by this bill are slightly different than the  
          factors used in the UC pilot program.  The factors used by the  
          UC included the bidder's financial condition, relevant  
          experience, demonstrated management competency, labor  
          compliance, and safety record.  This bill specifies the use of  
          relevant experience, safety record, and other factors identified  
          in the request for proposal in determining the qualification  
          score.  Relevant experience and safety record are factors  
          commonly used in the questionnaire for prequalification.   
          According to the sponsor, the LAUSD, whereas the  
          prequalification questionnaire may determine minimum  
          qualifications, the information solicited through the best value  
          procurement method will enable a school district to evaluate a  
          bidder's qualification and background based on more specific  
          needs of a project.     


          Prior session.  This bill was introduced last session as AB 1971  
          (Bocanegra).  The author held the bill on the Senate floor.   
          This bill modifies AB 1971 by deleting the specified weight that  
          must be given to relevant expertise, skilled and trained  
          workforce and acceptable safety record.  The bill, instead,  
          makes the use of a "skilled and trained" workforce as a  
          requirement for participation rather than a factor in  
          determining best value, and leaves the weight of the factors  
          unspecified.  "Skilled and trained workforce" is defined as a  
          workforce where all of the workers working on the project are  
          either skilled journeypersons or apprentices registered in an  
          apprenticeship program approved by the Chief of the Division of  
          Apprenticeship Standards under the Division of Industrial  
          Relations.  


          Arguments in support.  The author states, "With billions of  
          dollars in state and local funds being spent on school  
          construction projects throughout the state it is imperative that  
          school districts have the necessary tools to reduce risk and  











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          maximize efficiencies.  The best value procurement process would  
          create transparent and objective criteria that will result in  
          the selection of a quality contractor and a good history at a  
          competitive price."  


          Arguments in opposition. The Associated Builders and Contractors  
          of California (ABC California) has an oppose unless amended  
          position on the bill and states that the bill "will make it even  
          more difficult for non-union contractors to participate in the  
          best value pilot program proposed for the Los Angeles Unified  
          School District (LAUSD)."  ABC California further states, "The  
          'skilled workforce' requirement is proposed by building trade  
          unions as a new way to block local, non-union, minority and  
          women-owned construction employers and their employees from  
          participation in the LAUSD best value contracting process."  ABC  
          California suggests changing the effective date of the bill to  
          January 1, 2018.  


          Committee amendments:


          1)Correct a spelling error on page 2, line 26, from  
            "Aprenticeship" to "Apprenticeship."

          2)Change "director" to "governing board of the school district"  
            on page 8, line 4.

          3)Strike subdivision (c) of Section 20119.2 and reinsert as a  
            new subdivision after subdivision (e).  

          Prior legislation.  AB 1971 (Bocanegra), introduced last  
          session, is substantially similar to this bill.  The bill was  
          held in the Senate by the author.  


          SB 835 (Wolk), Chapter 636, Statutes of 2011, extended the  
          sunset of the best value pilot program for the UC to January 1,  











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          2017 and expanded the program to all UC campuses.  


          SB 667 (Migden), Chapter 367, Statutes of 2006, established the  
          best value pilot program for the UC San Francisco campus for  
          five years.  


          REGISTERED SUPPORT / OPPOSITION:




          Support


          Los Angeles Unified School District (sponsor)




          Opposition


          Associated Builders and Contractors of California (unless  
          amended)




          Analysis Prepared by:Sophia Kwong Kim / ED. / (916) 319-2087



















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