BILL ANALYSIS                                                                                                                                                                                                    

          |SENATE RULES COMMITTEE            |                        SJR 12|
          |Office of Senate Floor Analyses   |                              |
          |(916) 651-1520    Fax: (916)      |                              |
          |327-4478                          |                              |

                                    THIRD READING

          Bill No:  SJR 12
          Author:   Pan (D), et al.
          Vote:     21  

           SUBJECT:   Mitsuye Endo Tsutsumi:  Presidential Medal of  
                     Freedom nomination

          SOURCE:    Japanese American Citizens League

          DIGEST:  This resolution states the Legislature's support of the  
          nomination of Mitsuye Endo Tsutsumi for the Presidential Medal  
          of Freedom.

          ANALYSIS:   This resolution makes the following legislative  

          1)Mitsuye Endo was among 120,000 Japanese Americans residing on  
            the west coast of the United States who were forced from their  
            homes in the aftermath of the attack on Pearl Harbor.

          2)Pursuant to President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Executive Order  
            No. 9066, Mitsuye Endo and her family were uprooted from their  
            Sacramento home and incarcerated first in the Tule Lake War  
            Relocation Camp in California, and later in the Topaz War  
            Relocation Camp in Utah.  Altogether, Endo spent nearly three  
            years surrounded by barbed wire and guard towers in some of  
            the most remote and desolate areas of the United States.


                                                                     SJR 12  
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          3)Based on Mitsuye Endo's background as a loyal American  
            citizen, a Nisei (second-generation Japanese American) from  
            Sacramento who was Christian, had never been to Japan, and had  
            a brother serving in the United States Army, Endo was selected  
            as the plaintiff for a test case challenging Japanese  

          4)While her case was proceeding, Endo rejected an offer from the  
            government for conditional release, choosing instead to remain  
            incarcerated to allow her case to continue through the court  

          5)Mitsuye Endo was the only female plaintiff in the four United  
            States Supreme Court cases that challenged the legality of  
            military orders selectively affecting over 120,000 Japanese  
            Americans during World War II.

          6)Two of the three remaining plaintiffs were awarded the  
            Presidential Medal of Freedom, Endo, who brought the only  
            victorious legal challenge filed by a Japanese American during  
            World War II, has not.

          7)Endo is an authentic American heroine who made a principled,  
            courageous, and historic stand and voluntarily sacrificed her  
            own freedom to secure the rights of all Japanese Americans who  
            were forcibly removed from their homes and confined in camps  
            without the benefit of due process.

          This resolution supports the nomination of Mitsuye Endo Tsutsumi  
          for the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

          FISCAL EFFECT:   Appropriation:    No          Fiscal  
          Com.:NoLocal:    No

          SUPPORT:   (Verified6/15/15)


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          Japanese American Citizens League (source)
          Berkeley Chapter of Japanese American Citizens League 
          Central California District Council of the Japanese American  
          Citizens League
          Silicon Valley Chapter of Japanese American Citizens League

          OPPOSITION:   (Verified6/15/15)

          None received

          Prepared by: Karen Chow / SFA / (916) 651-1520
          6/15/15 16:26:25

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