BILL ANALYSIS                                                                                                                                                                                                    



                                                                     SB 725


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          Date of Hearing:   July 15, 2015


                           ASSEMBLY COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION


                              Patrick O'Donnell, Chair


          SB  
          725 (Hancock) - As Amended July 7, 2015


          SENATE VOTE:  40-0


          SUBJECT:  Pupil instruction and services: visual and performing  
          arts content standards.


          SUMMARY:  Requires the State Board of Education (SBE) to adopt  
          revised state content standards in visual and performing arts  
          (VAPA), if the SBE also adopts a schedule for the regular update  
          of content standards.  Specifically, this bill:  


          1)Makes findings and declarations relative to the importance of  
            instruction in VAPA.



          2)Requires the SBE to adopt visual and performing arts standards  
            only if the SBE adopts a schedule recommended by the  
            Superintendent of Public Instruction (SPI) for the regular  
            update of academic content standards, pursuant to other  
            legislation.











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          3)Requires that the SPI, in consultation with the SBE, to  
            convene an academic standards advisory committee for the  
            purpose of updating standards in the areas of dance, visual  
            arts, theater, and music.



          4)Requires that the committee, in its deliberations, use as the  
            basis the National Core Arts Standards developed by the  
            National Coalition for Core Arts Standards.



          5)Requires that the advisory committee consist of 21 members,  
            appointed as follows:



             a)   Ten members appointed by the Governor
             b)   Four members appointed by the Senate Committee on Rules


             c)   Four members appointed by the Speaker of the Assembly


             d)   Three members appointed by the SPI





          1)States that members of an academic content standards advisory  
            committee serve at the pleasure of the appointing authority.



          2) Requires that not less than one-half of the members appointed  
            by each of the appointing authorities be current public school  
            elementary or secondary classroom teachers who have a  








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            professional credential under state law, and meet the  
            definition of "highly qualified" under federal law.



          3)States the intent of the Legislature that:



             a)   The Committee include representation from teachers of  
               different grade level spans, including elementary, middle,  
               and high school grades.
             b)   Members of the committee possess a thorough knowledge of  
               the academic content standards in the content area and  
               grade level span in which they are appointed.


             c)   The committee membership reflect the diversity of the  
               various ethnic groups, types of school districts, and  
               regions in California.





          1)Requires the committee to review the content standards  
            established in its particular subject matter and prepare  
            updates to the standards as it deems necessary.



          2)Requires that, when making its recommendation, the committee  
            consider both of the following criteria:



             a)   The extent to which its proposed updates reflect current  
               and confirmed research in the subject area under  
               consideration.








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             b)   The impact that the proposed updates will have upon  
               school districts and existing curricula and assessments.





          1)Requires the committee to conduct at least two, and no more  
            than six, in-person meetings that are open to the public and  
            include opportunities for public input.  States that the  
            committee may convene additional meetings by teleconference or  
            the Internet.



          2)Requires that, upon completing this review, the terms of the  
            members of the committee cease.



          3)Requires that members of an academic content standards  
            advisory committee serve without compensation, except for  
            actual and necessary travel expenses and substitute teacher  
            costs.



          4)Requires the committee to recommend the standards to the SBE  
            by January 31, 2018, which must either adopt the proposed  
            updates or reject them by July 31, 2018.



          5)Requires that, if the SBE rejects the standards it provide a  
            specific written explanation to the Superintendent, the  
            Governor, and the Legislature of the reasons why the proposed  
            standards were rejected.










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          6)Requires that, before final action, the California Department  
            of Education (CDE) post on its website the updates proposed by  
            the committee for a minimum of 60 days, and requires the CDE  
            to include a link by which members of the public may submit  
            comments on the proposed updates.



          7)Makes the convening of an advisory committee and the  
            requirement that the SBE to act on VAPA standards contingent  
            upon the Legislature appropriating funds for that purpose in  
            the annual Budget Act.



          8)States that nothing in this section shall be construed as  
            mandating an assessment of pupils in visual or performing  
            arts.



          9)States that this section shall remain in effect only until  
            January 1, 2019, and as of that date is repealed, unless a  
            later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2019,  
            deletes or extends that date.
            








          EXISTING LAW:   











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          1)Requires, no later than June 1, 2001, the SBE to adopt content  
            standards, pursuant to recommendations developed by the SPI,  
            in the curriculum area of visual and performing arts.



          2)States that these standards are intended to provide a  
            framework for programs that a school may offer in the  
            instruction of visual or performing arts, and that this  
            authorization shall not be construed to require a school to  
            follow the content standards or mandating an assessment of  
            students in VAPA.



          3)Requires that students take a course in either VAPA, foreign  
            language, or career technical education in order to graduate  
            from high school.  



          4)Requires the SBE to adopt or reject content standards in  
            language arts and mathematics and requires that at least 85%  
            of those standards to be those developed by the Common Core  
            State Standards Initiative consortium.



          5)Establishes, through policy of the University of California  
            (UC) and the California State University (CSU), A-G  
            requirements for admission to the UC and CSU, which include  
            one year of VAPA.



          FISCAL EFFECT:  According to the Senate Appropriations  
          Committee, to the extent the SBE adopts a schedule to regularly  








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          update content standards, this bill creates costs to the  
          California Department of Education (CDE) of $1.2 million General  
          Fund over two years.  This estimate includes costs for the  
          advisory committee as specified in this bill, and for additional  
          staff (5.7 positions) to support committees and draft the  
          standards.  Updating visual and performing arts content  
          standards could create a cost pressure in future years to update  
          corresponding curriculum frameworks, instructional materials,  
          professional development, and assessments.  





          COMMENTS:  





          Need for the bill.  According to the author's office,  
          "California's current visual and performing arts standards were  
          approved in 2001, and in the past 14 years education has seen a  
          major shift to problem solving, creativity, critical thinking  
          and visual learning.  Teachers need standards that reflect 21st  
          Century learning skills. California has creative industries that  
          represent more than $270 billion in our economy.  These design,  
          entertainment, media, and technology sectors require employees  
          with present-day visual arts skills and knowledge.  SB 725 will  
          update VAPA standards that are well overdue for modernizing so  
          that they are connected with both the Common Core State  
          Standards and the skills needed for the careers of the future."


          Should VAPA be next?  This bill would have the effect of making  
          the VAPA standards be the next set of standards to be updated  
          (if a schedule for the regular updating of standards is adopted  
          by the SBE).  









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          Apart from History-Social Science (for which a new framework is  
          under development), the VAPA standards adopted in 2001 are the  
          oldest set of state standards.  The most recent adoption  
          (original or last update) of content standards in each subject  
          area is shown below, with future standards shown in italics:


               1998:  History-Social Science


               2001:  Visual and Performing Arts


               2005:  Physical Education


               2008:  Health Education


               2009:  World Languages


               2010:  English Language Arts


               2010:  Mathematics


               2012:  English Language Development


               2013:  Career Technical Education 


               2013:  Science


               2015:  English Language Development (aligned to new  








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               Mathematics, Science standards)


               2019:  Computer Science (first standards)





          According to the author, California's 2001 standards are not  
          reflective of many changes in the field of VAPA, and create a  
          mixed message for educators in the field.  The College Board, in  
          a report cited below, notes that "arts educators commonly report  
          expectations in their districts that arts teaching and learning  
          practices will be aligned with the goals and objectives of the  
          Common Core," but California's standards are not aligned with  
          the Common Core state standards.   The author states that  
          teaching credential candidates being trained in preparation  
          programs are being trained with the new National Core Arts  
          Standards because they are aligned to the Common Core state  
          standards, but when hired to teach in the public schools are  
          expected to teach - and are evaluated on the basis of - the  
          state's standards.  The state must also adopt instructional  
          materials aligned to the 2001 standards.  The Committee may also  
          wish to consider that the VAPA curriculum framework is due to be  
          revised in 2020, and an update to content standards is needed  
          prior, or the new framework will reflect outdated standards.  

          Need for a predictable schedule for school districts and  
          educators.  Unlike state curriculum frameworks, the SBE has no  
          statutory authority for the updating of content standards.  As  
          demonstrated below, legislation proposing standards updates has  
          been introduced and has failed in various subjects numerous  
          times.  The result for the field is an unpredictable system of  
          updating curriculum, which has implications for nearly every  
          part of the instructional system, including pre-service  
          preparation, instruction, instructional materials, professional  
          development, assessment, and evaluation.  AB 740 (Weber) of this  
          Session would require the SBE to adopt a schedule for revising  








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          the content standards which would provide some consistency and  
          predictability for the field.  The Committee may wish to  
          consider that this bill has been amended to be consistent with  
          AB 740, and its implementation is contingent upon a process  
          which is required by AB 740.


          National Core Arts Standards.  This bill requires that the  
          advisory committee, when making recommendations on updates to  
          the VAPA standards, use the National Core Arts Standards (NCAS)  
          as the basis for its deliberations.



          The NCAS were developed by the National Coalition for Core Arts  
          Standards and finalized in 2014.  The Coalition membership  
          included eight organizations representing the breadth of arts  
          education, including representatives of state agencies.  The  
          standards cover five areas of arts instruction (dance, visual  
          arts, theater, music, and media arts), with four "process"  
          categories common to all arts instruction:  creating,  
          performing/presenting/producing, responding, and connecting.   
          For each of these processes there are several "anchor standards"  
          (eleven in total) which cut across the different forms of the  
          arts.  According to press reports, three states have adopted  
          these standards and another ten are considering them for  
          adoption.


          What's different?  The primary way in which the NCAS differ from  
          the California's current VAPA standards is in the alignment of  
          the standards with the Common Core state standards.  Consistent  
          with the Common Core standards, the NCAS place greater emphasis  
          on critical thinking and deeper inquiry.  For example, according  
          to a report by EdSource, in the area of music the NCAS encourage  
          students to arrange, compose and improvise, instead of relying  
          solely on teachers' instructions, and some content, such as how  
          to read a music score, is taught earlier.  The new standards  
          also reflect changes in technology, encouraging students to take  








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          advantage of new means of composing, producing, and performing  
          music.  Overall, the NCAS are viewed as more rigorous than  
          California's current standards.

          To measure the extent to which the NCAS are aligned to the  
          Common Core state standards, the National Coalition for Core  
          Arts Standards engaged the College Board to perform a comparison  
          between the NCAS  anchor standards and the Common Core's anchor  
          standards, as well as the Common Core Standards for Mathematical  
          Practice.  This review concluded that "meaningful connections to  
          the Common Core are found throughout all of NCAS Anchor  
          Standards, including those associated with creating as well as  
          those concerned with performing or presenting, in addition to  
          responding and connecting. The arts standards connect to all  
          segments of the Common Core, extending beyond the standards for  
          reading to include writing, speaking and listening, and the  
          Standards for Mathematical Practice."
          
          Media arts.  California's VAPA standards cover four areas:   
          dance, visual art, music, and theater.  The NCAS cover a fifth  
          area - media arts.  California's current Career Technical  
          Education standards, adopted in 2013, also covers media arts in  
          its Arts, Media, and Entertainment section, in the Design,  
          Visual, and Media Arts Pathway, though in a very different  
          manner than the National Core Arts Standards.  This bill limits  
          the work of the advisory committee to the four areas currently  
          covered by the state's VAPA standards.


          Trend from state-developed to adoption of  
          independently-developed standards. When California began  
          adopting content standards in the 1990's, standards were  
          developed by individual states.  The result was significant  
          variation among states in what was expected of students.   
          Beginning with the Common Core State Standards, states have  
          shifted to the adoption of standards which were developed by  
          national organizations with input from experts and practitioners  
          from around the country.  This was the case with English  
          Language Arts and Mathematics (Common Core State Standards,  








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          developed by the National Governors Association and the Council  
          of Chief State School Officers), Science (Next Generation  
          Science Standards, developed by the National Academy of  
          Sciences, the National Science Teachers Association, and other  
          organizations), and has been proposed this year for World  
          Languages (World Readiness Standards for Learning Languages,  
          developed by a coalition of numerous organizations) and Visual  
          and Performing Arts (National Core Arts Standards, developed by  
          the National Coalition for Core Arts Standards).  For English  
          Language Arts, Mathematics, and Science, California adopted the  
          independently-developed standards with minor modifications.  


          Related legislation this session.  AB 740 (Weber) of this  
          Session would require the SPI, by January 1, 2017, to recommend  
          to the SBE a schedule for the regular update of academic content  
          standards.  This bill grants the SBE the authority to convene  
          academic content standards advisory committees to update the  
          standards, and requires that the SBE adopt or reject them.  AB  
          740 is pending in the Senate.


          AB 711 (Santiago) would have required the SBE to adopt national  
          content standards by June 1, 2017, which are in accordance with  
          the World-Readiness Standards for Learning Languages, pursuant  
          to the recommendations of the SPI.  This bill was held in the  
          Assembly Appropriations Committee.


          Prior legislation.  SB 1057 (Corbett) of the 2013-14 Session  
          would have created a process to update the history-social  
          science content standards. This bill was vetoed by the Governor,  
          who expressed a concern that the Instructional Quality  
          Commission did not have a role in the proposed revision process,  
          among other issues.


          AB 1033 (Feuer) of the 2011-12 Session would have established a  
          content standards review commission, if the SPI and the SBE  








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          jointly found a need to revise or modify the academic content  
          standards. The SBE could adopt or reject the recommendations.  
          This bill was held in the Assembly Appropriations Committee.


          AB 124 (Fuentes), Chapter 605, Statutes of 2011, requires the  
          SPI, in consultation with the SBE, to convene a group of experts  
          in English language instruction, curriculum, and assessment to  
          align the English language development standards to English  
          language arts content standards. The SBE could adopt, reject, or  
          modify the recommendations. 


          SB 300 (Hancock), Chapter 624, Statutes of 2011, requires the  
          SPI to convene a group of science experts to recommend science  
          content standards which the SBE could adopt, reject, or modify. 


          AB 97 (Torlakson) of the 2009-10 Session would have established  
          the Academic Content Standards Commission for Science and  
          History-Social Science consisting of 21 appointed members to  
          review and update the standards, and required the SBE to adopt  
          or reject the recommendations of the commission. This bill was  
          vetoed.


          SB 1 X5 (Steinberg) Chapter 2, Statutes of  2010, requires the  
          SBE to adopt or reject content standards in language arts and  
          mathematics and requires that at least 85% of those standards to  
          be those developed by the Common Core State Standards Initiative  
          consortium.


          AB 1454 (Richardson) of the 2007-08 Session would have required  
          the SPI to convene content standards review panels in English  
          language arts and mathematics and required the SBE to adopt or  
          reject the recommendations of the review panel.  This bill was  
          held in the Senate Education Committee.









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          AB 1100 (Mullin) of the 2005-06 Session would have authorized  
          the SPI to appoint a content standards review panel in each  
          subject area two years prior to the curriculum framework  
          adoption for each subject area, and specifying that the panel  
          review and revise the  content standards.  This bill was held in  
          the Assembly Appropriations Committee.   

          AB 2744 (Goldberg) of the 2003-04 Session would have established  
          a process for the updating of academic content standards by  
          requiring the SPI to convene content standards review panels in  
          each subject area and requiring the SBE to adopt or reject the  
          recommendations of each panel. This bill was vetoed.


          AB 642 (Mullin) of the 2003-04 Session would have required the  
          SPI to periodically review and update academic content standards  
          for the SBE to adopt or reject.  This bill was vetoed.


          SB 1367 (Karnette) of the 2001-02 Session would have required  
          the SBE to periodically review and update core curriculum  
          content standards. This bill was vetoed.


          REGISTERED SUPPORT / OPPOSITION:




          Support


          California Art Education Association (sponsor)


          California Dance Education Association (sponsor)










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          California Educational Theatre Association (sponsor)


          California Music Educators Association (sponsor)


          Drama Teachers Association of Southern California (sponsor)


          Association of California School Administrators


          California Alliance for Arts Education


          California Federation of Teachers


          California Orchestra Directors Association


          California School Boards Association


          California State PTA


          California Teachers Association


          California Thespians


          Common Sense Kids Action


          National Association for Music Merchants










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          Quincy Jones Productions


          Southern California Vocal Association




          Opposition


          None on file




          Analysis Prepared by:Tanya Lieberman / ED. / (916)  
          319-2087