INTRODUCED BY   Assembly Members Lempert, Villaraigosa, Alquist,
Baca, Baugh, Bowen, Brown, Bustamante, Cardenas, Cardoza, Cunneen,
Davis, Ducheny, Escutia, Figueroa, Floyd, Frusetta, Gallegos,
Goldsmith, Havice, Hertzberg, Honda, Keeley, Knox, Kuehl, Kuykendall,
Machado, Martinez, Mazzoni, Migden, Murray, Napolitano, Papan,
Perata, Scott, Shelley, Strom-Martin, Sweeney, Thomson, Torlakson,
Vincent, Washington, Wayne, and Wildman

                        MAY 7, 1998

   Assembly Concurrent Resolution No. 155--Relative to breastfeeding.


   ACR 155, Lempert.  Breastfeeding.
   This measure would encourage the State of California and
California employers to support and encourage the practice of
breastfeeding, by striving to accommodate the needs of employees, and
by ensuring that employees are provided with adequate facilities for
breastfeeding and expressing milk for their children.  The measure
would also memorialize the Governor to declare by executive order
that all State of California employees be provided with adequate
facilities for breastfeeding and expressing milk.

   WHEREAS, Extensive research, especially in recent years, documents
diverse and compelling advantages to infants, mothers, families, and
society from breastfeeding and the use of human milk for infant
feeding, including health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental,
psychological, social, economic, and environmental benefits; and
   WHEREAS, Epidemiologic research shows that human milk and
breastfeeding of infants provide advantages with regard to general
health, growth, and development, while significantly decreasing risk
for a large number of acute and chronic diseases.  Research in the
United States, Canada, Europe, and other developed countries, among
predominantly middle-class populations, provides strong evidence that
human milk feeding decreases the incidence, or severity, or both, of
diarrhea, lower respiratory infection, otitis media, bacteremia,
bacterial meningitis, botulism, urinary tract infection, and
necrotizing enterocolitis.  In addition, a number of studies show a
possible protective effect of human milk feeding against sudden
infant death syndrome, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Crohn's
disease, ulcerative colitis, lymphoma, allergic diseases, and other
chronic digestive diseases. Breastfeeding has also been related to
possible enhancement of cognitive development; and
   WHEREAS, A number of studies also indicate potential health
benefits for mothers, as it has long been acknowledged that
breastfeeding increases levels of oxytocin, resulting in less
postpartum bleeding and more rapid uterine involution, and
lactational amenorrhea causes less menstrual blood loss over the
months after delivery.  Recent research demonstrates that lactating
women have an earlier return to prepregnancy weight, delayed
resumption of ovulation with increased child spacing, improved bone
remineralization postpartum with reduction in hip fractures in the
postmenopausal period, and reduced risk of ovarian cancer and
premenopausal breast cancer; and
   WHEREAS, In addition to individual health benefits, breastfeeding
provides significant social and economic benefits to the nation,
including reduced health care costs and reduced employee absenteeism
for care attributable to child illness.  The significantly lower
incidence of illness in the breast-fed infant allows the parents more
time to give attention to siblings and other family duties, and
reduces parental absence from work and lost income.  The direct
economic benefits to the family are also significant.  It has been
estimated, for example, that in 1993, the cost of purchasing infant
formula for the first year after birth was $855; and
   WHEREAS, Increasing the rates of breastfeeding initiation and
duration is a national health objective, and one of the goals of
Healthy People 2000, a national prevention initiative to improve the
health of all Americans.  The target of Healthy People 2000 is to
increase to at least 75 percent the proportion of mothers who breast
feed their babies in the early postpartum period and to at least 50
percent the proportion who continue breastfeeding until their babies
are five to six months old.  Although breastfeeding rates have
increased slightly since 1990, the percentage of women currently
electing to breast feed their babies is still lower than levels
reported in the mid-1980's, and is far below the Healthy People 2000
goal.  In 1995, 59.4 percent of women in the United States were
breastfeeding either exclusively or in combination with formula
feeding at the time of hospital discharge, but only 21.6 percent of
mothers were nursing at six months, and many of these were
supplementing with formula; and
   WHEREAS, The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive
breastfeeding as ideal nutrition, sufficient to support optimal
growth and development for approximately the first six months of
life, with the gradual introduction of iron-enriched solid foods in
the second half of the first year to complement the breast milk diet.
  It is recommended that breastfeeding continue for at least 12
months, and thereafter for as long as mutually desired; and
   WHEREAS, Hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent by
the United States government to purchase artificial milk for babies.
Yet, one study indicated that the national Women, Infants, and
Children (WIC) nutrition program could save $93 million a month in
lower food package costs alone if all mothers breast fed their
infants.  According to a report released in the fall of 1996,
compared to formula-fed babies, each breast-fed baby saved $478 in
WIC and other health care costs for the first six months of life.
The International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics reported in
1994 that, in the United States, two to four billion dollars could be
saved in annual health care costs if women breast fed their infants
for as little as 12 weeks; and
   WHEREAS, Employers, employees, and society benefit by supporting a
mother's decision to breast feed and by helping reduce the obstacles
of continuing to do so after returning to work.  A study by a major
health maintenance organization found that infants who were breast
fed for a minimum of six months experienced $1,435 less in health
care claims than formula-fed infants, and a study from the University
of California at Los Angeles School of Nursing found that breast-fed
babies have 35 percent fewer illnesses than formula-fed babies, and
their nursing moms have a corresponding 27 percent lower absence
rate; and
   WHEREAS, Employers clearly benefit by having lower health care
costs, less employee absenteeism, and better morale, and employees
are also more likely to return to work earlier from maternity leave
if they do not foresee complications with being able to continue to
breast feed; and
   WHEREAS, Multiple obstacles reduce the number of mothers that
continue breastfeeding after returning to work, including finding an
adequate place for feeding or expressing milk, finding the time or
flexibility in breaks or working hours, having a place to store the
milk, and concerns about the acceptability of these activities; and
   WHEREAS, Most employers are sympathetic to the needs of nursing
mothers, and are very supportive of their employees when it is
brought to their attention, however, employees must be encouraged to
discuss their needs with their employers; and
   WHEREAS, Employees can successfully continue to provide for the
needs of their children, given adequate facilities and support.
These adequate facilities include a clean, private place, with a
chair, and electrical outlet, with access to running water and
refrigerated storage; now, therefore, be it
   Resolved by the Assembly of the State of California, the Senate
thereof concurring, That the Legislature encourages the State of
California and all California employers to strongly support and
encourage the practice of breastfeeding by striving to accommodate
the needs of employees, and by ensuring that employees are provided
with adequate facilities for breastfeeding, or the expressing of milk
for their children; and be it further
   Resolved, That the Legislature respectfully memorializes the
Governor to declare by executive order that all State of California
employees shall be provided with adequate facilities for
breastfeeding, or the expressing of milk; and be it further
   Resolved, That the Chief Clerk of the Assembly transmit copies of
this resolution to the author for appropriate distribution.